8 research outputs found

    Aligned silver nanowires for plasmonically-enhanced fluorescence detection of photoactive proteins in wet and dry environment

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    We developed a method of aligning silver nanowires in a microchannel and fixing them to glass substrates via appropriate functionalization. The attachment of nanowires to the substrate is robust with no variation of their angles over minutes. Specific conjugation with photoactive proteins is observed using wide-field fluorescence imaging in real-time for highly concentrated protein solution, both in a microchannel and in a chip geometry. In the latter case we can detect the presence of the proteins in the dropcasted solution down to single proteins. The results point towards possible implementation of aligned silver nanowires as geometrically defined plasmonic fluorescence sensing platform

    Ground- and excited-state properties of Re(I) carbonyl complexes - effect of triimine ligand core and appended heteroaromatic groups

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    In this work, a series of six rhenium(I) complexes bearing 2,2ÔÇ▓ :6ÔÇ▓ ,2ÔÇ▓ÔÇ▓ -terpyridine (terpy), 2,6-di(thiazol-2-yl)pyridine (dtpy), and 2,6-di(pyrazin-2-yl)pyridine (dppy) with appended quinolin-2-yl and N-ethylcarbazol-3-yl groups were prepared and spectroscopically investigated to evaluate the photophysical consequences of both the trisheterocyclic core (terpy, dtpy and dppy) and the heterocyclic substituent. The [ReCl(CO)3(Ln-╬║2N)] complexes are regarded as ideal candidates for getting structureÔÇôproperty relationships, while terpy-like framework represents an excellent structural backbone for structural modifications. The replacement of the peripheral pyridine rings of 2,2ÔÇ▓ :6ÔÇ▓ ,2ÔÇ▓ÔÇ▓ -terpyridine by thiazoles and pyrazines resulted in a significant red-shift of the absorption and emission of [ReCl(CO)3(Ln-╬║2N)] due to stabilization of the ligand-centred LUMO orbital. Both quinoline and Nethylcarbazole are extended ¤Ç-conjugation organic chromophores, but they differ in electron-donating abilities. The low-energy absorption band of Re(I) complexes with the triimine ligands bearing quinolin-2-yl group was contributed by the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) electronic transitions. The introduction of electrondonating N-ethylcarbazol-3-yl substituent into the triimine acceptor core resulted in the change of the character of the HOMO of Re(I) complexes and a significant increase of molar absorption coefficients of the longwavelength absorption, which was assigned to a combination of 1MLCT and 1ILCT (intraligand chargetransfer) transitions. Regardless of the appended heteroaromatic group, the emitting excited state of Re(I) terpy-based complexes was demonstrated to have predominant 3MLCT character, as evidenced by comprehensive studies including static and time-resolved emission spectroscopy along with ultrafast transient absorption measurements. The diodes with Re(I) complexes dispersed molecularly in a PVK:PBD matrix were emissive andeffects of the complex structure on colour of emitted light and its intensity was pronounced

    Real-Time Fluorescence Imaging of His-Tag-Driven Conjugation of mCherry Proteins to Silver Nanowires

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    In this work, we aimed to apply fluorescence microscopy to image protein conjugation to Ni-NTA modified silver nanowires in real time via the His-tag attachment. First, a set of experiments was designed and performed for the mixtures of proteins and silver nanowires in order to demonstrate plasmon enhancement of mCherry protein fluorescence as well as the ability to image fluorescence of single molecules. The results indicated strong enhancement of single-protein fluorescence emission upon coupling with silver nanowires. This conclusion was supported by a decrease in the fluorescence decay time of mCherry proteins. Real-time imaging was carried out for a structure created by dropping protein solution onto a glass substrate with functionalized silver nanowires. We observed specific attachment of mCherry proteins to the nanowires, with the recognition time being much longer than in the case of streptavidinÔÇôbiotin conjugation. This result indicated that it is possible to design a universal and efficient real-time sensing platform with plasmonically active functionalized silver nanowires

    Energy Transfer from Photosystem I to Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide

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    The energy transfer from photosynthetic complex photosystem I to thermally reduced graphene oxide was studied using fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy, and compared against the structure in which monolayer epitaxial graphene was used as the energy acceptor. We find that the properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an energy acceptor is qualitatively similar to that of epitaxial graphene. Fluorescence quenching, which in addition to shortening of fluorescence decay, is a signature of energy transfer varies across rGO substrates and correlates with the transmission pattern. We conclude that the efficiency of the energy transfer depends on the number of rGO layers in the flakes and decreases with this number. Furthermore, careful analysis of fluorescence imaging data confirms that the energy transfer efficiency dependence on the excitation wavelength, also varies with the number of rGO flakes

    Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscopy of Real-Time Bioconjugation Sensing

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    We apply wide-field fluorescence microscopy to measure real-time attachment of photosynthetic proteins to plasmonically active silver nanowires. The observation of this effect is enabled, on the one hand, by sensitive detection of fluorescence and, on the other hand, by plasmonic enhancement of protein fluorescence. We examined two sample configurations with substrates being a bare glass coverslip and a coverslip functionalized with a monolayer of streptavidin. The different preparation of the substrate changes the observed behavior as far as attachment of the protein is concerned as well as its subsequent photobleaching. For the latter substrate the conjugation process is measurably slower. The described method can be universally applied in studying protein-nanostructure interactions for real-time fluorescence-based sensing

    Photochemical Printing of Plasmonically Active Silver Nanostructures

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    In this paper, we demonstrate plasmonic substrates prepared on demand, using a straightforward technique, based on laser-induced photochemical reduction of silver compounds on a glass substrate. Importantly, the presented technique does not impose any restrictions regarding the shape and length of the metallic pattern. Plasmonic interactions have been probed using both Stokes and anti-Stokes types of emitters that served as photoluminescence probes. For both cases, we observed a pronounced increase of the photoluminescence intensity for emitters deposited on silver patterns. By studying the absorption and emission dynamics, we identified the mechanisms responsible for emission enhancement and the position of the plasmonic resonance

    Silver Island Film for Enhancing Light Harvesting in Natural Photosynthetic Proteins

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    The effects of combining naturally evolved photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes with inorganic functional materials, especially plasmonically active metallic nanostructures, have been a widely studied topic in the last few decades. Besides other applications, it seems to be reasonable using such hybrid systems for designing future biomimetic solar cells. In this paper, we describe selected results that point out to various aspects of the interactions between photosynthetic complexes and plasmonic excitations in Silver Island Films (SIFs). In addition to simple light-harvesting complexes, like peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) or the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex, we also discuss the properties of large, photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) and Photosystem I (PSI)—both prokaryotic PSI core complexes and eukaryotic PSI supercomplexes with attached antenna clusters (PSI-LHCI)—deposited on SIF substrates

    Controlling of Photophysical Behavior of Rhenium(I) Complexes with 2,6-Di(thiazol-2-yl)pyridine-Based Ligands by Pendant π-Conjugated Aryl Groups

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    The structure–property correlations and control of electronic excited states in transition metal complexes (TMCs) are of high significance for TMC-based functional material development. Within these studies, a series of Re(I) carbonyl complexes with aryl-substituted 2,6-di(thiazol-2-yl)pyridines (Arn-dtpy) was synthesized, and their ground- and excited-state properties were investigated. A number of condensed aromatic rings, which function as the linking mode of the aryl substituent, play a fundamental role in controlling photophysics of the resulting [ReCl(CO)3(Arn-dtpy-κ2N)]. Photoexcitation of [ReCl(CO)3(Arn-dtpy-κ2N)] with 1-naphthyl-, 2-naphthyl-, 9-phenanthrenyl leads to the population of 3MLCT. The lowest triplet state of Re(I) chromophores bearing 9-anthryl, 2-anthryl, 1-pyrenyl groups is ligand localized. The rhenium(I) complex with appended 1-pyrenyl group features long-lived room temperature emission attributed to the equilibrium between 3MLCT and 3IL/3ILCT. The excited-state dynamics in complexes [ReCl(CO)3(9-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] and [ReCl(CO)3(2-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] is strongly dependent on the electronic coupling between anthracene and {ReCl(CO)3(dtpy-κ2N)}. Less steric hindrance between the chromophores in [ReCl(CO)3(2-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] is responsible for the faster formation of 3IL/3ILCT and larger contribution of 3ILCTanthracene→dtpy in relation to the isomeric complex [ReCl(CO)3(9-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)]. In agreement with stronger electronic communication between the aryl and Re(I) coordination centre, [ReCl(CO)3(2-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] displays room-temperature emission contributed to by 3MLCT and 3ILanthracene/3ILCTanthracene→dtpy phosphorescence. The latter presents rarely observed phenomena in luminescent metal complexes
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