198 research outputs found

    Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with Addison's disease: a comparative study of South African and Swedish patients

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    BACKGROUND: Patients with Addison's disease (AD) in Scandinavia have an increased risk for premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum lipids are important risk factors for CVD and vascular mortality. Replacement doses of hydrocortisone have historically been higher in Sweden than South Africa. The primary aim was to study the lipid profiles in a large group of patients with AD with the hypothesis that the lipid profile in patients in Sweden would be worse than in South Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 110 patients with AD (55 from South Africa, 55 from Sweden) matched for age, gender, ethnicity and BMI were studied. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipids, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiponectin were studied. RESULTS: All patients were Caucasian and the majority were women N = 36 (65.5%). Mean (standard deviation; SD) ages of the Swedish and South African patients were 52.9 (13.0) and 52.6 (14.4) years and BMI 25.3 (3.2) and 25.8 (4.1) kg/m 2 , respectively. The mean total daily hydrocortisone dose was greater in the Swedish patients than the South African patients, [33.0 (8.1) versus 24.3 (8.0) mg; p<0.0001]. South African patients had higher median (interquartilerange; IQR) triglycerides (TG) [1.59 (1.1-2.46) versus 0.96 (0.74-1.6) mmol/l; p<0.001], total cholesterol (TC) [6.02(1.50) versus 5.13 (0.87) mmol/l; p<0.001], LDL-C [4.43 (1.44) versus 2.75 (0.80) mmol/l; p<0.001] and median hs-CRP [2.15 (0.93-5.45) versus 0.99 (0.57-2.10) mg/L; p<0.003] and lower HDL-C [0.80 (0.40) versus 1.86 (0.46) mmol/l; p<0.001] than the Swedish patients. Approximately 20% of the patients in both cohorts had hypertension and diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: South African patients with AD have worse lipid profiles and higher hs-CRP compared to their matched Swedish patients, despite lower doses of hydrocortisone. It is uncertain at this time whether these are due to genetic or environmental factors

    Influence of Membrane CD25 Stability on T Lymphocyte Activity: Implications for Immunoregulation

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    CD25, a component of the IL-2 receptor, is important in T cell proliferation, activation induced cell death, as well as the actions of both regulatory (Treg) and effector (Teff) T cells. Recent genome wide association studies have implicated the CD25 locus as an important region for genetic susceptibility to a number of autoimmune disorders, with serum levels of soluble CD25 receptor (sCD25) serving as a potential phenotypic marker for this association. However, the functional impact of CD25 cleavage, as well as the influence of sCD25 on immunoregulatory activities, remain largely unknown and form the basis of this effort.The generation of sCD25 by Treg (CD4(+)CD25(+)) and Teff (CD4(+)CD25(-)) cells was examined during in vitro suppression assays, efforts that demonstrated constitutive and stable surface CD25 expression on Treg throughout the period of in vitro assessment. In contrast, Teff cells increased CD25 expression during the process of in vitro suppression, with supernatant sCD25 levels correlating to the amount of cellular proliferation. Interestingly, under serum-free conditions, Tregs partially lost their characteristic anergic and suppressive properties. sCD25 supplementation at physiological concentrations to serum free in vitro suppression assays reduced Teff proliferation without specifically influencing suppression. Indeed, sCD25 production within these cultures correlated with cell death.These results support the notion that sCD25 functions as both a surrogate marker of T cell activation as well as an indicator of subsequent cellular death. In addition, the role of CD25 in immunomodulation is likely dependent on the local inflammatory milieu, with molecules capable of modulating surface CD25 expression playing a key role in defining immune responsiveness

    Failure to Preserve β-Cell Function With Mycophenolate Mofetil and Daclizumab Combined Therapy in Patients With New- Onset Type 1 Diabetes

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    OBJECTIVE This trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone or with daclizumab (DZB) could arrest the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was initiated by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet at 13 sites in North America and Europe. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and with sufficient C-peptide within 3 months of diagnosis were randomized to either MMF alone, MMF plus DZB, or placebo, and then followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide from the 2-h mixed meal tolerance test. RESULTS One hundred and twenty-six subjects were randomized and treated during the trial. The geometric mean C-peptide AUC at 2 years was unaffected by MMF alone or MMF plus DZB versus placebo. Adverse events were more frequent in the active therapy groups relative to the control group, but not significantly. CONCLUSIONS Neither MMF alone nor MMF in combination with DZB had an effect on the loss of C-peptide in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Higher doses or more targeted immunotherapies may be needed to affect the autoimmune process

    Lack of correlation between the levels of soluble cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and the CT-60 genotypes

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    BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in downregulation of antigen-activated immune response and polymorphisms at the CTLA-4 gene have been shown to be associated with several autoimmune diseases including type-1 diabetes (T1D). The etiological mutation was mapped to the CT60-A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is believed to control the processing and production of soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4). METHODS: We therefore determined sCTLA-4 protein levels in the sera from 82 T1D patients and 19 autoantibody positive (AbP) subjects and 117 autoantibody negative (AbN) controls using ELISA. The CT-60 SNP was genotyped for these samples by using PCR and restriction enzyme digestion of a 268 bp DNA segment containing the SNP. Genotyping of CT-60 SNP was confirmed by dye terminating sequencing reaction. RESULTS: Higher levels of sCTLA-4 were observed in T1D (2.24 ng/ml) and AbP (mean = 2.17 ng/ml) subjects compared to AbN controls (mean = 1.69 ng/ml) with the differences between these subjects becoming significant with age (p = 0.02). However, we found no correlation between sCTLA-4 levels and the CTLA-4 CT-60 SNP genotypes. CONCLUSION: Consistent with the higher serum sCTLA-4 levels observed in other autoimmune diseases, our results suggest that sCTLA-4 may be a risk factor for T1D. However, our results do not support the conclusion that the CT-60 SNP controls the expression of sCTLA-4

    Antithymocyte Globulin Plus G-CSF Combination Therapy Leads to Sustained Immunomodulatory and Metabolic Effects in a Subset of Responders With Established Type 1 Diabetes.

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    Low-dose antithymocyte globulin (ATG) plus pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) preserves β-cell function for at least 12 months in type 1 diabetes. Herein, we describe metabolic and immunological parameters 24 months following treatment. Patients with established type 1 diabetes (duration 4-24 months) were randomized to ATG and pegylated G-CSF (ATG+G-CSF) (N = 17) or placebo (N = 8). Primary outcomes included C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) following a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and flow cytometry. "Responders" (12-month C-peptide ≥ baseline), "super responders" (24-month C-peptide ≥ baseline), and "nonresponders" (12-month C-peptide &lt; baseline) were evaluated for biomarkers of outcome. At 24 months, MMTT-stimulated AUC C-peptide was not significantly different in ATG+G-CSF (0.49 nmol/L/min) versus placebo (0.29 nmol/L/min). Subjects treated with ATG+G-CSF demonstrated reduced CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio and increased CD16+CD56hi natural killer cells (NK), CD4+ effector memory T cells (Tem), CD4+PD-1+ central memory T cells (Tcm), Tcm PD-1 expression, and neutrophils. FOXP3+Helios+ regulatory T cells (Treg) were elevated in ATG+G-CSF subjects at 6, 12, and 18 but not 24 months. Immunophenotyping identified differential HLA-DR expression on monocytes and NK and altered CXCR3 and PD-1 expression on T-cell subsets. As such, a group of metabolic and immunological responders was identified. A phase II study of ATG+G-CSF in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes is ongoing and may support ATG+G-CSF as a prevention strategy in high-risk subjects

    Influence of Fecal Sample Storage on Bacterial Community Diversity

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    Previous studies have identified a correlation, either positive or negative, between specific stool bacteria strains and certain autoimmune diseases. These conflicting data may relate to sample collection. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the collection parameters of time and temperature on bacterial community composition. Samples were taken from healthy children and immediately divided in 5 sub-samples. One sample was frozen immediately at -80°C, while the other aliquots were frozen 12, 24, 48, and 72h later DNA extracted from each sample was used to amplify the 16S rRNA with barcoded primers. The amplified products were pooled and partial 16S rRNA sequences were obtained by pyrosequencing. Person-to-person variability in community diversity was high. A list of those taxa that comprise at least 1% of the community was made for each individual. None of these were present in high numbers in all individuals. The Bacteroides were present in the highest abundance in three of four subjects. A total of 23,701 16S rRNA sequences were obtained with an average of 1,185 reads per sample with an average length of 200 bases. Although pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA identified changes in community composition over time (~10%), little diversity change was observed at 12 hours (3.06%) with gradual changes occurring after 24 (8.61%), 48 (9.72%), and 72 h (10.14%), post collection

    The autoimmune disease-associated SNP rs917997 of IL18RAP controls IFNγ production by PBMC

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    AbstractType 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by aberrant T cell responses. Innate immune activation defects may facilitate a T helper 1 (Th1) phenotype. The cytokine IL-18 synergizes with IL-12 to induce IFNγ production and Th1 differentiation. The IL-18R subunit (IL18RAP) SNP rs917997 has been linked to decreased IL18RAP gene expression. Prior reports link rs917997 allele A with protection from T1D, and conversely with susceptibility to Celiac disease. However, few studies have investigated the IL-18 pathway in T1D. In this study, we analyzed responsiveness to IL-18 in T1D, and the effect of rs917997 genotype on IL18RAP gene expression post-activation. Upon IL-12 and IL-18 treatment, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects carrying susceptibility alleles at rs917997 produced higher levels of IFNγ than those with protective genotypes. Additionally, the SNP modified IL18RAP surface protein expression by NK cells and gene expression in activated T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the disease-associated rs917997 allele G permits hyperresponsiveness to IL-18, providing a novel target for therapeutic intervention in T1D
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