525 research outputs found

    Oxalate content of miner’s lettuce irrigated with water or fertilizer solutions

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    The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the small, large and cauline leaves and small and large stems of miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata ) plants which had been irrigated with tap water or a soluble fertilizer were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Overall, all plant parts of miner’s lettuce analyzed contained high levels of total and soluble oxalates; however plants irrigated with fertilizer contained lower levels of oxalates compared with plants irrigated with water. On a dry matter basis, the small leaves contained higher levels of total oxalate when compared to the total oxalate in the large leaves. Soluble oxalate in the leaves of plants irrigated with water ranged from 2.6 to 7.5 mg/100g dry matter (DM) and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the leaves of the fertilizer-watered plants, which ranged from 1.8 to 2.8 mg/100g DM. The soluble oxalate in the small and large stems of the fertilizer-watered plants ranged from 1.20 to 1.5 mg/100g DM and was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the water-treated small and large stems, which ranged from 3.75 to 4.4 mg/100g DM. It is recommended that the leaves of miner’s lettuce should be consumed in moderation

    Total soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ripe green and golden kiwifruit

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    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW

    Sensory evaluation of different levels of roasting of New Zealand grown hazelnuts

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    Hazelnuts (Corylus aveIIana L.) are a very recent addition to commercial horticulture in New Zealand and Whiteheart has been selected as the primary commercial cultivar. No published information is available on the optimum temperatures needed to roast the dried nuts. An experiment was designed to investigate three different roasting treatments, blanching, light roast and full roast using a conveyer type roasting oven set at 200°C. The roasted samples were then analysed for proximate contents and evaluated using a taste panel. The appearance, texture, flavour and overall appearance was evaluated by 63 tasters at one time. The blanched nut was appreciated for its colour but it was considered too chewy and bland in taste compared to the roasted nuts. Each one of the heat treatments gave an improved rating for all of the attributes measured. Roasting in the oven set at 200°C for 6 minutes (full roast) was the treatment appreciated most by all tasters. Analysis of the correlation coefficients showed that the overriding impression about the hazelnuts comes from the flavour of the nut followed by its texture. The overall appearance of the nut was not highly rated by the tasters once the hazelnuts had been heat treated

    A Quantitative Theory of Solid Tumor Growth, Metabolic Rate and Vascularization

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    The relationships between cellular, structural and dynamical properties of tumors have traditionally been studied separately. Here, we construct a quantitative, predictive theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate, vascularization and necrosis that integrates the relationships between these properties. To accomplish this, we develop a comprehensive theory that describes the interface and integration of the tumor vascular network and resource supply with the cardiovascular system of the host. Our theory enables a quantitative understanding of how cells, tissues, and vascular networks act together across multiple scales by building on recent theoretical advances in modeling both healthy vasculature and the detailed processes of angiogenesis and tumor growth. The theory explicitly relates tumor vascularization and growth to metabolic rate, and yields extensive predictions for tumor properties, including growth rates, metabolic rates, degree of necrosis, blood flow rates and vessel sizes. Besides these quantitative predictions, we explain how growth rates depend on capillary density and metabolic rate, and why similar tumors grow slower and occur less frequently in larger animals, shedding light on Peto's paradox. Various implications for potential therapeutic strategies and further research are discussed

    Oxalate content of green juices produced by two different methods

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    Green juicing is being promoted as a healthy way of obtaining refreshment, quenching thirst and it provides a rich source of nutrients and vitamins. Unfortunately, green juices are commonly made from seasonally available green leafy vegetable that are also high in oxalates. Recently, there have been several documented cases of acute oxalate nephropathy attributed to the consumption of green juices. This experiment compared the composition of two commonly used domestic juicers that produce juices in different ways

    Whey- vs Casein-Based Enteral Formula and Gastrointestinal Function in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

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    Objectives: Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) commonly have gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Whey-based enteral formulas have been postulated to reduce gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) and accelerate gastric emptying (GE). The authors investigated whether whey-based (vs casein-based) enteral formulas reduce GOR and accelerate GE in children who have severe CP with a gastrostomy and fundoplication. Methods: Thirteen children received a casein-based formula for 1 week and either a 50% whey whole protein (50% WWP) or a 100% whey partially hydrolyzed protein (100% WPHP) formula for 1 week. Reflux episodes, gastric half-emptying time (GE t1/2), and reported pain and GI symptoms were measured. Results: Whey formulas emptied significantly faster than casein (median [interquartile range (IQR)] GE t1/2, 33.9 [25.3-166.2] min vs 56.6 [46-191] min; P = .033). Reflux parameters were unchanged. GI symptoms were lower in children who received 50% WWP (visual analog symptom score, median [IQR], 0[0-11.8]) vs 100% WPHP (13.0 [2.5-24.8]) (P = .035). Conclusion: This pilot study shows that in children who have severe CP with a gastrostomy and fundoplication, GE of the whey-based enteral formula is significantly faster than casein. The acceleration in GE does not alter GOR frequency, and there appears to be no effect of whey vs casein in reducing acid, nonacid, and total reflux episodes. The results indicate that enteral formula selection may be particularly important for children with severe CP and delayed GE. (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012;36:118S-123S

    Who’s Got Your Mail?:Characterizing Mail Service Provider Usage

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    E-mail has long been a critical component of daily communication and the core medium for modern business correspondence. While traditionally e-mail service was provisioned and implemented independently by each Internet-connected organization, increasingly this function has been outsourced to third-party services. As with many pieces of key communications infrastructure, such centralization can bring both economies of scale and shared failure risk. In this paper, we investigate this issue empirically --- providing a large-scale measurement and analysis of modern Internet e-mail service provisioning. We develop a reliable methodology to better map domains to mail service providers. We then use this approach to document the dominant and increasing role played by a handful of mail service providers and hosting companies over the past four years. Finally, we briefly explore the extent to which nationality (and hence legal jurisdiction) plays a role in such mail provisioning decisions

    Effects of body size and temperature on population growth

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    For at least 200 years, since the time of Malthus, population growth has been recognized as providing a critical link between the performance of individual organisms and the ecology and evolution of species.We present a theory that shows how the intrinsic rate of exponential population growth, , and the carrying capacity, rmax K, depend on individual metabolic rate and resource supply rate. To do this, we construct equations for the metabolic rates of entire populations by summing over individuals, and then we combine these population-level equations with Malthusian growth. Thus, the theory makes explicit the relationship between rates of resource supply in the environment and rates of production of new biomass and individuals. These individual-level and population-level processes are inextricably linked because metabolism sets both the demand for environmental resources and the resource allocation to survival, growth, and reproduction. We use the theory to make explicit how and why exhibits its characteristic dependence on body size and rmax temperature. Data for aerobic eukaryotes, including algae, protists, insects, zooplankton, fishes, and mammals, support these predicted scalings for. The metabolic flux of energy and materials also rmax dictates that the carrying capacity or equilibrium density of populations should decrease with increasing body size and increasing temperature. Finally, we argue that body mass and body temperature, through their effects on metabolic rate, can explain most of the variation in fecundity and mortality rates. Data for marine fishes in the field support these predictions for instantaneous rates of mortality. This theory links the rates of metabolism and resource use of individuals to life-history attributes and population dynamics for a broad assortment of organisms, from unicellular organisms to mammals
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