1,181 research outputs found

    Evolution of the luminosity function of extragalactic objects

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    A nonparametric procedure for determination of the evolution of the luminosity function of extragalactic objects and use of this for prediction of expected redshift and luminosity distribution of objects is described. The relation between this statistical evolution of the population and their physical evolution, such as the variation with cosmological epoch of their luminosity and formation rate is presented. This procedure when applied to a sample of optically selected quasars with redshifts less than two shows that the luminosity function evolves more strongly for higher luminosities, indicating a larger quasar activity at earlier epochs and a more rapid evolution of the objects during their higher luminosity phases. It is also shown that absence of many quasars at redshifts greater than three implies slowing down of this evolution in the conventional cosmological models, perhaps indicating that this is near the epoch of the birth of the quasar (and galaxies)

    Structure of impulsive phase of solar flares from microwave observations

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    Variation of the microwave intensity and spectrum due to gyro-synchrotron radiation from semi-relativistic particles injected at the top of a closed magnetic loop is described. Using the recent high spatial resolution X-ray observations from the HXIS experiment of Solar Maximum Mission and from observations by the Very Large Array (VLA), it is shown that the high microwave brightness observed at the top of the flare loop can come about if (1) the magnetic field from top to footpoints of the loop does not increase very rapidly, and (2) the accelerated particles injected in the loop have a nearly isotropic pitch angle distribution. The limits on the rate of increase of the magnetic field and/or the average pitch angle depend on the geometry and location of the loop on the solar disk

    The luminosity function of quasars and its evolution: A comparison of optically selected quasars and quasars found in radio catalogs

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    The luminosity function of quasars and its evolution are discussed, based on comparison of available data on optically selected quasars and quasars found in radio catalogs. It is assumed that the red shift of quasars is cosmological and the results are expressed in the framework of the Lambda = 0, Q sub Q = 1 cosmological model. The predictions of various density evolution laws are compared with observations of an optically selected sample of quasars and quasar samples from radio catalogs. The differences between the optical luminosity functions, the red shift distributions and the radio to optical luminosity ratios of optically selected quasars and radio quasars rule out luminosity functions where there is complete absence of correlation between radio and optical luminosities. These differences also imply that Schmidt's (1970) luminosity function, where there exists a statistical correlation between radio and optical luminosities, although may be correct for high red shift objects, disagrees with observation at low red shifts. These differences can be accounted for by postulating existence of two classes (1 and 2) of objects

    Directivity of Bremsstrahlung radiation from relativistic beams and the Gamma-Rays from solar flares

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    It has been observed that flares with greater than 10 Mev gamma-ray emission are concentrated around the solar limb with a dispersion of 10 to 20 degrees. It is shown that the bremsstrahlung by relativistic electrons is responsible for such gamma-rays and that the expected relativistic beaming cannot explain this dispersion. It is argued that this dispersion is predominately a reflection of the pitch angle distribution of the electrons. Then it is shown that this requires a small variation of the magnetic field from the point where the electrons are injected to the photosphere and a nearly isotropic (in the downward direction) pitch angle distribution at the injection. The influence of other effects on the observed distribution is also discussed
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