217 research outputs found

    Modulation of DMBA- induced biochemical and histopathological changes by Syzygium cumini seed extract during skin carcinogenesis

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    Aim & Method: The current study was designed to elucidate the protective effect of Syzygium cumini seed extract (SCE) on skin carcinogenesis induced by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (100 μg/100 μl of acetone) and 2 weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/three times a week) till the end of the experiment (16 weeks). Result: Oral administration of SCE at a dose of 125 mg/kg b.wt./day for 15 days at the peri-initiational stage (i.e., 7 days before & 7 days after DMBA application) and for 14 weeks at the promotional stage (i.e., from the time of croton oil application), revealed a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (p<0.05-0.001) along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, p<0.05-0.001 & catalase, p<0.05-0.001), non-enzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, p<0.05-0.01 & vitamin-C, p<0.01-0.001) and total proteins levels (p<0.01-0.001) when compared to the carcinogen treated control animals. Histopathological study revealed that dyskeratosis of the epidermis, deposition of keratinous pearl and epidermal hyperplasia in skin tumors of DMBA treated control and the same were found to be of lesser degree in both the SCE treated experimental animals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that SCE ameliorate the DMBA/croton oil induced adverse biochemical and histopathological alterations during skin carcinogenesis in mice

    Protective Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on DMBA/Croton Oil Mediated Carcinogenic Response and Oxidative Damage in Accordance to Histopathological Studies in Skin of Mice

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    The current study has been designed to unveil the preventive effect of Phyllanthus niruri extract (PNE) on two stage skin carcinogenesis and oxidative damage in Swiss albino mice. Single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), followed by croton oil thrice weekly produced 100% incidence of tumors in carcinogen control animals (Gr. III) by 16 weeks. On the other hand, oral administration of animals with PNE (1 week before of DMBA application &amp; continued until the end of experiment, Gr. IV), significantly reduced the tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor volume and weight and the number of tumors but  prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence, as compared with carcinogen control animals. Furthermore, administration of PNE protected against the losses provoked in levels of glutathione, Vit.C, total proteins and activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in skin and liver of animals by the application of DMBA/croton oil, concomitantly, the levels of lipid peroxidation were also reduced significantly. P. niruri administration profoundly reverted back the pathological changes observed in skin and liver of cancerous animals. From the results, P. niruri extract proves to scavenge free radical and found to be a potent chemopreventive agent against chemical induced skin carcinogenesis. Keywords: carcinogenesis, Phyllanthus niruri, cancer chemoprevention, tumor incidence, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme

    Unilateral high division of brachial artery and its clinical significance

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    Upper limb arterial variations are commonly encountered and have been reported in many articles. The present study showed a high division of brachial artery in the middle third of arm into its terminal branches, the radial artery laterally and the ulnar artery medially. This study is an attempt to discuss the anatomy, embryological basis and clinical implications of such variations. Knowledge of such anomalous vessels is significant from clinical point of view

    Biliary ductal variations and its clinical implications: a cadaveric study

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    Background: Biliary ductal region being frequently abnormal has been the subject of research since long time for anatomists, surgeons and radiologists as well.Methods: The present study was carried out in the department of Anatomy at PGIMS, Rohtak on 50 specimens of liver taken unblock with associated structures.Results: Accessory hepatic and accessory cystic ducts were observed in 4% cases each.  2% cases exhibited abnormal low fusion of cystic duct with common hepatic duct.Conclusions: These anomalies may add to postoperative complications if ignored. Present study is a step in the direction of creating awareness about these variations among the clinicians

    Prevalence and risk factor analysis for post-partum depression in women: a cross-sectional study at tertiary care centre

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    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is non-psychotic depressive episode that occurs between postpartum to fourteen months of childhood. It has adverse effect on mother and child health. Aim of this study was to analyze prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression at tertiary care centre.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in obstetrics and gynaecology department where 175 women between 10 days to 1 year of delivery were assessed using Edinberg postpartum depression scale. A score of 10 or more were taken as sign of postpartum depression. Various socio-demographic and obstetrics variables were assessed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).Results: Prevalence of PPD was found in 11.4% patients. Common risk factors associated were intrauterine death (IUD) or early neonatal death, postpartum complications and lack of family support.Conclusions: Postpartum is common among postnatal women and is associated with various factors which can be modified. So early detection of associated risk factors is needed for early intervention and prevents its impact on mother and child health.

    Microalgae as next generation plant growth additives: Functions, applications, challenges and circular bioeconomy based solutions

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    Sustainable agriculture practices involve the application of environment-friendly plant growth promoters and additives that do not negatively impact the health of the ecosystem. Stringent regulatory frameworks restricting the use of synthetic agrochemicals and the increase in demand for organically grown crops have paved the way for the development of novel bio-based plant growth promoters. In this context, microalgae biomass and derived agrochemicals offer novel sources of plant growth promotors that enhance crop productivity and impart disease resistance. These beneficial effects could be attributed to the presence of wide range of biomolecules such as soluble amino acid (AA), micronutrients, polysaccharides, phytohormones and other signaling molecules in microalgae biomass. In addition, their phototrophic nature, high photosynthetic efficiency, and wide environmental adaptability make them an attractive source of biostimulants, biofertilizers and biopesticides. The present review aims to describe the various plant growth promoting metabolites produced by microalgae and their effects on plant growth and productivity. Further, the effects elicited by microalgae biostimulants with respect to different modes of applications such as seed treatments, foliar spray and soil/root drenching is reviewed in detail. In addition, the ability of microalgae metabolites to impart tolerance against various abiotic and biotic stressors along with the mechanism of action is discussed in this paper. Although the use of microalgae based biofertilizers and biostimulants is gaining popularity, the high nutrient and water requirements and energy intensive downstream processes makes microalgae based technology commercially unsustainable. Addressing this challenge, we propose a circular economy model of microalgae mediated bioremediation coupled with biorefinery approaches of generating high value metabolites along with biofertilizer applications. We discuss and review new trends in enhancing the sustainability of microalgae biomass production by co-cultivation of algae with hydroponics and utilization of agriculture effluents

    Risk Exposure to Particles – including Legionella pneumophila – emitted during Showering with Water-Saving Showers

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    The increase in legionellosis incidence in the general population in recent years calls for a better characterization of the sources of infection, such as showering. Water-efficient shower systems that use water atomization technology may emit slightly more inhalable bacteria-sized particles than traditional systems, which may increase the risk of users inhaling contaminants associated with these water droplets. To evaluate the risk, the number and mass of inhalable water droplets emitted by twelve showerheads—eight using water-atomization technology and four using continuous-flow technology— were monitored in a shower stall. The water-atomizing showers tested not only had lower flow rates, but also larger spray angles, less nozzles, and larger nozzle diameters than those of the continuous-flow showerheads. A difference in the behavior of inhalable water droplets between the two technologies was observed, both unobstructed or in the presence of a mannequin. The evaporation of inhalable water droplets emitted by the water-atomization showers favored a homogenous distribution in the shower stall. In the presence of the mannequin, the number and mass of inhalable droplets increased for the continuous-flow showerheads and decreased for the water-atomization showerheads. The water-atomization showerheads emitted less inhalable water mass than the continuous-flow showerheads did per unit of time; however, they generally emitted a slightly higher number of inhalable droplets—only one model performed as well as the continuous-flow showerheads in this regard. To specifically assess the aerosolisation rate of bacteria, in particular of the opportunistic water pathogen Legionella pneumophila, during showering controlled experiments were run with one atomization showerhead and one continuous-flow, first inside a glove box, second inside a shower stall. The bioaerosols were sampled with a Coriolis® air sampler and the total number of viable (cultivable and noncultivable) bacteria was determined by flow cytometry and culture. We found that the rate of viable and cultivable Legionella aerosolized from the water jet was similar between the two showerheads: the viable fraction represents 0.02% of the overall bacteria present in water, while the cultivable fraction corresponds to only 0.0005%. The two showerhead models emitted a similar ratio of airborne Legionella viable and cultivable per volume of water used. Similar results were obtained with naturally contaminated hoses tested in shower stall. Therefore, the risk of exposure to Legionella is not expected to increase significantly with the new generation of water-efficient showerheads
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