56,319 research outputs found

    Immune- and nonimmune-compartment-specific interferon responses are critical determinants of herpes simplex virus-induced generalized infections and acute liver failure

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    The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR-/- mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR-/- (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR-/- or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR-/- mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR-/- marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR-/- mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR-/- immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR-/- mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR-/-mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections

    The Lightning Rod Man - An Opera in One Act

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    This Opera was commissioned by Scottish Opera as part of its "Five:15" series of new operas. It is an adaptation of Herman Melville's short story of the same name. The librettist and collaborator was Amy Parker

    Intumescent paints Patent

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    Nitroaniline sulfate, intumescent paint

    Newly confirmed and high quality candidate Galactic SNRs uncovered from the AAO/UKST HAlpha survey

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    We present a catalogue of 18 new Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) uncovered in the optical regime as filamentary emissions and extended nebulosities on images of the Anglo Australian Observatory/United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope (AAO/UKST) HAlpha survey of the southern Galactic plane. Our follow-up spectral observations confirmed classical optical SNR emission lines for these 18 structures via detection of very strong [SII] at 6717 and 6731A relative to HAlpha ([SII]/HAlpha> 0.5). Morphologically, 10 of these remnants have coherent, extended arc or shell structures, while the remaining objects are more irregular in form but clearly filamentary in nature, typical of optically detected SNRs. In 11 cases there was a clear if not complete match between the optical and radio structures with H filamentary structures registered inside and along the presumed radio borders. Additionally, ROSAT X-ray sources were detected inside the optical/radio borders of 11 of these new remnants and 3 may have an associated pulsar. The multi-wavelength imaging data and spectroscopy together present strong evidence to confirm identification of 18 new, mostly senile Galactic SNRs. This includes G288.7-6.3, G315.1+2.7 and G332.5-5.6, identified only as possible remnants from preliminary radio observations. We also confirm existence of radio quiet but optically active supernova remnants.Comment: In original form 21 pages, 29 figures Accepted for MNRA

    Transparent polymeric laminates

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    Laminate prepared from epoxy-boroxine and phenolphthalein polycarbonate has high mechanical strength at elevated temperature and is resistant to impact, fire, and high-energy thermal radiation. Polycarbonate is prepared by reaction of phenolphthalein with phosgene in presence of amine catalyst and immiscible organic solvent phase

    Bismaleimides and related maleimido polymers as matrix resins

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    Significant processing and property improvements can be achieved by copolymerization of state-of-the-art bisimides with various vinyl stilbazole derivatives to give both fire resistance and high-temperature properties from hot-melt compositions. Significant improvement in mechanical properties is achieved through these modifications, which may make these new matrix resins ideal candidates for fireworthy secondary graphite composite structures. Phosphorous modifications of maleimido polymers through phosphonate structure and tricyclophosphazene derivatives provide families of new matrix resins for short-time applications in severe thermo-oxidative environments. With further research these may provide matrix resins for long-term thermo-oxidative stability of advanced composites at temperatures up to 400 to 500 C

    Maleimido substituted aromatic cyclotriphosphazenes

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    4-Aminophenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes are reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleamic acids which are converted to the maleimides. The maleimides are polymerized. By selection of starting materials (e.g., hexakis amino or trisaminophenoxy-trisphenoxy-cyclo-triphosphazenes), selection of molar proportions of reactants, use of mixtures of anhydrides and use of dianhydrides as bridging groups a variety of maleimides and polymers are produced. The polymers have high limiting oxygen indices, high char yields and other useful heat and fire resistant properties making them useful as, for example, impregnants of fabrics

    PRISM: a tool for automatic verification of probabilistic systems

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    Probabilistic model checking is an automatic formal verification technique for analysing quantitative properties of systems which exhibit stochastic behaviour. PRISM is a probabilistic model checking tool which has already been successfully deployed in a wide range of application domains, from real-time communication protocols to biological signalling pathways. The tool has recently undergone a significant amount of development. Major additions include facilities to manually explore models, Monte-Carlo discrete-event simulation techniques for approximate model analysis (including support for distributed simulation) and the ability to compute cost- and reward-based measures, e.g. "the expected energy consumption of the system before the first failure occurs". This paper presents an overview of all the main features of PRISM. More information can be found on the website: www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~dxp/prism