29 research outputs found

    Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses

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    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses

    Synthesis, X-ray structure determination and germination studies on some smoke-derived karrikins

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    AbstractThe discovery of the karrikin class of plant growth regulators (PGRs) is a milestone accomplishment in plant biochemistry and physiology, with significant potential in agriculture and horticulture. These compounds have in common a fused furano-pyran ring system featuring various permutations of methyl substitution. Chief amongst these compounds is karrikinolide (KAR1), identified as the key germination stimulant present in plant-derived smoke, which together with five other closely-related structures (KAR2–KAR6) make up the karrikin class of PGRs. By contrast, the germination inhibitor 3,4,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone has also been identified in plant-derived smoke. Various synthetic endeavours have been undertaken for structure–activity relationship study purposes as well as to probe the molecular mechanics of these compounds. In this study, syntheses of KAR1, KAR3 and S-KAR1 were carried out and their structures verified by X-ray crystallography. Effects on germination were measured against the inhibitor 3,4,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone in Grand Rapids lettuce seeds. X-ray crystallographic data and germination promotory activity for S-KAR1 are described for the first time

    Using soil-specific partition coefficients to improve accuracy of the new South African guideline for contaminated land

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    Contaminated land in South Africa is regulated through the National Environmental Management Waste Act (Act 59 of 2008) (NEMWA) and the National Norms and Standards for the Remediation of Contaminated Land and Soil Quality (NSCLA) (GN R.331 of 2014). These standards were obtained from the Framework for the Management of Contaminated Land. A soil screening value (SSV1) for the protection of groundwater resources is proposed which is based on a 2-phase (stage) equilibrium partitioning and dilution model which includes a dilution factor and partitioning coefficient (Kd), converting the water quality guideline to a total soil screening value. The appropriateness of the screening values has been questioned because of the uncertainties surrounding the Kd values used by the Framework. This paper investigates the Kd values of Cu, Pb, and V for selected South African diagnostic soil horizons to evaluate the reliability of the current Kd values used by the Framework during Phase 1 screening. The Kd values of Cu for the 10 horizons ranged between 13 and 19 044 ℓ∙kg-1, all exceeding the value of 10 ℓ∙kg-1 provided by the Framework. For Pb the values ranged from 25 to >252 294 ℓ∙kg-1 as compared to the Framework’s 100 ℓ∙kg-1. Similarly, the Kd value of 200 ℓ∙kg-1 for V recommended by the Framework is higher than the measured Kd value of 15 to 173 ℓ∙kg-1 for all 10 diagnostic horizons. This study demonstrated that the observed wide Kd value ranges for each element were related to the variation in basic soil properties such as soil pH, organic carbon, clay, Fe, and Al content. Therefore, the Kd values for Cu, Pb, and V currently used by the Framework are not representative of typical South African diagnostic soil horizons. Linear regression models were developed for the prediction of Cu, Pb, and V Kd values from measured soil properties, which could be used to generate soil-specific Kd values

    A Holistic Financing Strategy for Transport in South Africa

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    Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies. Faculty of Economics and Business. The University of Sydne