11 research outputs found

    Computation of Displacement and Spin Gravitational Memory in Numerical Relativity

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    We present the first numerical relativity waveforms for binary black hole mergers produced using spectral methods that show both the displacement and the spin memory effects. Explicitly, we use the SXS Collaboration's SpEC\texttt{SpEC} code to run a Cauchy evolution of a binary black hole merger and then extract the gravitational wave strain using SpECTRE\texttt{SpECTRE}'s version of a Cauchy-characteristic extraction. We find that we can accurately resolve the strain's traditional m=0m=0 memory modes and some of the m0m\not=0 oscillatory memory modes that have previously only been theorized. We also perform a separate calculation of the memory using equations for the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs charges as well as the energy and angular momentum fluxes at asymptotic infinity. Our new calculation uses only the gravitational wave strain and two of the Weyl scalars at infinity. Also, this computation shows that the memory modes can be understood as a combination of a memory signal throughout the binary's inspiral and merger phases, and a quasinormal mode signal near the ringdown phase. Additionally, we find that the magnetic memory, up to numerical error, is indeed zero as previously conjectured. Lastly, we find that signal-to-noise ratios of memory for LIGO, the Einstein Telescope (ET), and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) with these new waveforms and new memory calculation are larger than previous expectations based on post-Newtonian or Minimal Waveform models.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figures; 10.1103/PhysRevD.102.104007. Corrected a minor sign error in Eqs. 27, 40, 42, 43, and 5

    Computation of displacement and spin gravitational memory in numerical relativity

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    We present the first numerical relativity waveforms for binary black hole mergers produced using spectral methods that show both the displacement and the spin memory effects. Explicitly, we use the SXS (Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes) Collaboration’s SpEC code to run a Cauchy evolution of a binary black hole merger and then extract the gravitational wave strain using SpECTRE’s version of a Cauchy-characteristic extraction. We find that we can accurately resolve the strain’s traditional m=0 memory modes and some of the m≠0 oscillatory memory modes that have previously only been theorized. We also perform a separate calculation of the memory using equations for the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs charges as well as the energy and angular momentum fluxes at asymptotic infinity. Our new calculation uses only the gravitational wave strain and two of the Weyl scalars at infinity. Also, this computation shows that the memory modes can be understood as a combination of a memory signal throughout the binary’s inspiral and merger phases, and a quasinormal mode signal near the ringdown phase. Additionally, we find that the magnetic memory, up to numerical error, is indeed zero as previously conjectured. Last, we find that signal-to-noise ratios of memory for LIGO, the Einstein Telescope, and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna with these new waveforms and new memory calculation are larger than previous expectations based on post-Newtonian or minimal waveform models

    Collective filters: a new approach to analyze the gravitational-wave ringdown of binary black-hole mergers

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    We propose two frequency-domain filters to analyze ringdown signals of binary black hole mergers. The first rational filter is constructed based on a set of (arbitrary) quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of the remnant black holes, whereas the second full filter comes from the transmissivity of the remnant black holes. The two filters can remove corresponding QNMs from original time-domain ringdowns, while changing early inspiral signals in a trivial way - merely a time and phase shift. After filtering out dominant QNMs, we can visualize the existence of various subdominant effects. For example, by applying our filters to a GW150914-like numerical relativity (NR) waveform, we find second-order effects in the (l = 4, m = 4), (l = 5, m = 4) and (l = 5, m = 5) harmonics; the spherical-spheroidal mixing mode in the (l = 2,m = 2) harmonic; and a mixing mode in the (l = 2,m = 1) harmonic due to a gravitational recoil. In another NR simulation where two component spins are anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum, we also find retrograde modes. Additionally, we propose to use the rational filter to estimate the start time of a QNM. The filters are sensitive to the remnant properties (i.e., mass and spin) and thus have a potential application to future data analyses and parameter estimations. We also investigate the stability of the full filter. Its connection to the instability of QNM spectra is discussed

    Comparing Remnant Properties from Horizon Data and Asymptotic Data in Numerical Relativity

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    We present a new study of remnant black hole properties from 13 binary black hole systems, numerically evolved using the Spectral Einstein Code. The mass, spin, and recoil velocity of each remnant were determined quasi-locally from apparent horizon data and asymptotically from Bondi data (h,ψ4,ψ3,ψ2,ψ1)(h, \psi_4, \psi_3, \psi_2, \psi_1) computed at future null infinity using SpECTRE's Cauchy characteristic evolution. We compare these independent measurements of the remnant properties in the bulk and on the boundary of the spacetime, giving insight into how well asymptotic data are able to reproduce local properties of the remnant black hole in numerical relativity. We also discuss the theoretical framework for connecting horizon quantities to asymptotic quantities and how it relates to our results. This study recommends a simple improvement to the recoil velocities reported in the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes waveform catalog, provides an improvement to future surrogate remnant models, and offers new analysis techniques for evaluating the physical accuracy of numerical simulations.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, 1 table; published Physical Review

    Numerical relativity surrogate model with memory effects and post-Newtonian hybridization

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    Numerical relativity simulations provide the most precise templates for the gravitational waves produced by binary black hole mergers. However, many of these simulations use an incomplete waveform extraction technique -- extrapolation -- that fails to capture important physics, such as gravitational memory effects. Cauchy-characteristic evolution (CCE), by contrast, is a much more physically accurate extraction procedure that fully evolves Einstein's equations to future null infinity and accurately captures the expected physics. In this work, we present a new surrogate model, NRHybSur3dq8_\_CCE, built from CCE waveforms that have been mapped to the post-Newtonian (PN) BMS frame and then hybridized with PN and effective one-body (EOB) waveforms. This model is trained on 102 waveforms with mass ratios q8q\leq8 and aligned spins χ1z,χ2z[0.8,0.8]\chi_{1z}, \, \chi_{2z} \in \left[-0.8, 0.8\right]. The model spans the entire LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA (LVK) frequency band (with flow=20Hzf_{\text{low}}=20\text{Hz}) for total masses M2.25MM\gtrsim2.25M_{\odot} and includes the 4\ell\leq4 and (,m)=(5,5)(\ell,m)=(5,5) spin-weight 2-2 spherical harmonic modes, but not the (3,1)(3,1), (4,2)(4,2) or (4,1)(4,1) modes. We find that NRHybSur3dq8_\_CCE can accurately reproduce the training waveforms with mismatches 2×104\lesssim2\times10^{-4} for total masses 2.25MM300M2.25M_{\odot}\leq M\leq300M_{\odot} and can, for a modest degree of extrapolation, capably model outside of its training region. Most importantly, unlike previous waveform models, the new surrogate model successfully captures memory effects.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures. Accepted for publication in PR

    Extending black-hole remnant surrogate models to extreme mass ratios

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    Numerical-relativity surrogate models for both black-hole merger waveforms and remnants have emerged as important tools in gravitational-wave astronomy. While producing very accurate predictions, their applicability is limited to the region of the parameter space where numerical-relativity simulations are available and computationally feasible. Notably, this excludes extreme mass ratios. We present a machine-learning approach to extend the validity of existing and future numerical-relativity surrogate models toward the test-particle limit, targeting in particular the mass and spin of post-merger black-hole remnants. Our model is trained on both numerical-relativity simulations at comparable masses and analytical predictions at extreme mass ratios. We extend the gaussian-process-regression model NRSur7dq4Remnant, validate its performance via cross validation, and test its accuracy against additional numerical-relativity runs. Our fit, which we dub NRSur7dq4EmriRemnant, reaches an accuracy that is comparable to or higher than that of existing remnant models while providing robust predictions for arbitrary mass ratios.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures. Model publicly available at https://pypi.org/project/surfinB

    Laying the foundation of the effective-one-body waveform models SEOBNRv5: improved accuracy and efficiency for spinning non-precessing binary black holes

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    We present SEOBNRv5HM, a more accurate and faster inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform model for quasi-circular, spinning, nonprecessing binary black holes within the effective-one-body (EOB) formalism. Compared to its predecessor, SEOBNRv4HM, the waveform model i) incorporates recent high-order post- Newtonian results in the inspiral, with improved resummations, ii) includes the gravitational modes (l, |m|) = (3, 2), (4, 3), in addition to the (2, 2), (3, 3), (2, 1), (4, 4), (5, 5) modes already implemented in SEOBNRv4HM, iii) is calibrated to larger mass-ratios and spins using a catalog of 442 numerical-relativity (NR) simulations and 13 additional waveforms from black-hole perturbation theory, iv) incorporates information from second-order gravitational self-force (2GSF) in the nonspinning modes and radiation-reaction force. Computing the unfaithfulness against NR simulations, we find that for the dominant (2, 2) mode the maximum unfaithfulness in the total mass range 10300M10-300 M_{\odot} is below 10310^{-3} for 90% of the cases (38% for SEOBNRv4HM). When including all modes up to l = 5 we find 98% (49%) of the cases with unfaithfulness below 102(103)10^{-2} (10^{-3}), while these numbers reduce to 88% (5%) when using SEOBNRv4HM. Furthermore, the model shows improved agreement with NR in other dynamical quantities (e.g., the angular momentum flux and binding energy), providing a powerful check of its physical robustness. We implemented the waveform model in a high-performance Python package (pySEOBNR), which leads to evaluation times faster than SEOBNRv4HM by a factor 10 to 50, depending on the configuration, and provides the flexibility to easily include spin-precession and eccentric effects, thus making it the starting point for a new generation of EOBNR waveform models (SEOBNRv5) to be employed for upcoming observing runs of the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA detectors

    SXS BBH CCE Catalog

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    Catalog of CCE waveforms for binary black hole simulations.Files available via S3 at ttps://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/</p>Horizons.h5 1.5 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/Horizons.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0100.h5 23.2 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0100.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0100.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0100.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0267.h5 19.5 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" 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rMPsi4_BondiCce_R0433.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rMPsi4_BondiCce_R0433.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rMPsi4_BondiCce_R0600.h5 31.4 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rMPsi4_BondiCce_R0600.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rMPsi4_BondiCce_R0600.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rMPsi4_BondiCce_R0600.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rhOverM_BondiCce_R0100.h5 23.9 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rhOverM_BondiCce_R0100.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rhOverM_BondiCce_R0100.json 837.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rhOverM_BondiCce_R0100.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rhOverM_BondiCce_R0267.h5 16.4 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rhOverM_BondiCce_R0267.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rhOverM_BondiCce_R0267.json 837.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rhOverM_BondiCce_R0267.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> rhOverM_BondiCce_R0433.h5 16.3 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev5/bondi_cce/rhOverM_BondiCce_R0433.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> 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href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0267.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0433.h5 19.8 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0433.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0433.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0433.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0600.h5 22.2 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0600.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2News_BondiCce_R0600.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2News_BondiCce_R0600.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0100.h5 25.5 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0100.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0100.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0100.json" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0267.h5 21.6 MB <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" href="https://renc.osn.xsede.org/ini210004tommorrell/0_D1.20236/GW150914/Lev6/bondi_cce/r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0267.h5" > <i class="download icon"></i> Download </a></p> r2Psi3_BondiCce_R0267.json 840.0 B <a role="button" class="ui compact mini button" 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    Adding gravitational memory to waveform catalogs using BMS balance laws

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    Accurate models of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes are crucial for detectors to measure events and extract new science. One important feature that is currently missing from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) Collaboration’s catalog of waveforms for merging black holes, and other waveform catalogs, is the gravitational memory effect: a persistent, physical change to spacetime that is induced by the passage of transient radiation. We find, however, that by exploiting the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) balance laws, which come from the extended BMS transformations, we can correct the strain waveforms in the SXS catalog to include the missing displacement memory. Our results show that these corrected waveforms satisfy the BMS balance laws to a much higher degree of accuracy. Furthermore, we find that these corrected strain waveforms coincide especially well with the waveforms obtained from Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) that already exhibit memory effects. These corrected strain waveforms also evade the transient junk effects that are currently present in CCE waveforms. Last, we make our code for computing these contributions to the BMS balance laws and memory publicly available as a part of the python package sxs, thus enabling anyone to evaluate the expected memory effects and violation of the BMS balance laws
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