28 research outputs found

    Authentication and traceability study on barbera d\u2019asti and nizza docg wines: The role of trace-and ultra-trace elements

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    Barbera d\u2019Asti\u2014including Barbera d\u2019Asti superiore\u2014and Nizza are two DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines produced in Piemonte (Italy) from the Barbera grape variety. Differences among them arise in the production specifications in terms of purity, ageing, and zone of production, in particular with concern to Nizza, which follows the most stringent rules, sells at three times the average price, and is considered to have the highest market value. To guarantee producers and consumers, authentication methods must be developed in order to distinguish among the different wines. As the production zones totally overlap, it is important to verify whether the distinction is possible or not according to metals content, or whether chemical markers more linked to winemaking are needed. In this work, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) elemental analysis and multivariate data analysis are used to study the authentication and traceability of samples from the three designations of 2015 vintage. The results show that, as far as elemental distribution in wine is concerned, work in the cellar, rather than geographic provenance, is crucial for the possibility of distinction

    Chemistry and Technology of Wine Aging with Oak Chips

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    The use of wood chips is a common winemaking practice that has been permitted in Europe since the early 2000s. The use of oak chips, or other wood alternative products, has not always been favorably viewed by both producers and wine consumers. Beyond possible misuse, however, wood chips are a useful tool for the optimal achievement of numerous oenological objectives, including the extraction of certain volatile odor compounds from oak wood chips as well as compounds that will improve wine quality. This chapter deals with the main oenological uses of oak wood chips, the chemical transformations that underlie this practice and the effect of their utilization on wine quality. A final aspect concerns the main compositional and sensory differences between wines aged in barrel and those aged with alternative products, as well as the discriminative analytical methods used for this purpose

    Aroma precursors of Grignolino grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and their modulation by vintage in a climate change scenario

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    Current climatic conditions may cause significant changes in grapevine phenology and maturity dynamics linked often with changes to ecoclimatic indicators. The influence exerted by different meteorological conditions during four consecutive years on the aromatic potential of Grignolino grapes was investigated for the first time. The samples were collected from three vineyards characterized by different microclimatic conditions mainly related to the vineyard exposure and by a different age of the plants. Important differences as far as temperature and rainfall patterns are concerned during ripening were observed among the 4 years. Grape responses to abiotic stress, with particular emphasis on aromatic precursors, were evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results highlighted significant differences among the vintages for each vineyard in terms of the berry weight and the aromatic precursor concentration. For the grapes of the younger-vine vineyard, the content of aroma compounds showed a different variability among the vintages if compared to the old-vine vineyards. Optimal conditions in terms of temperature and rainfall during the green phase followed by a warm and dry post-veraison period until harvest favored all classes of compounds especially terpenoids mainly in the grapes of the old vines. High-temperature (>30°C) and low-rainfall pattern before veraison led to high benzenoid contents and increased differences among vineyards such as berry weight, whereas cooler conditions favored the terpenoid levels in grapes from southeast-oriented vineyards. In a hilly environment, lack of rainfall and high temperature that lately characterize the second part of berry development seem to favor the grape quality of Grignolino, a cultivar of medium-late ripening, by limiting the differences on bunch ripening, allowing a greater accumulation of secondary metabolites but maintaining at the same time an optimum balance sugar/acidity

    Characterisation of refined marc distillates with alternative oak products using different analytical approaches

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    The use of oak barrel alternatives, including oak chips, oak staves and oak powder, is quite common in the production of spirits obtained from the distillation of vegetal fermented products such as grape pomace. This work explored the use of unconventional wood formats such as peeled and sliced wood. The use of poplar wood was also evaluated to verify its technological uses to produce aged spirits. To this aim, GC-MS analyses were carried out to obtain an aromatic characterisation of experimental distillates treated with these products. Moreover, the same spirits were studied for classification purposes using NMR, NIR and e-nose. A significant change in the original composition of grape pomace distillate due to sorption phenomena was observed; the intensity of this effect was greater for poplar wood. The release of aroma compounds from wood depended both on the toasting level and wood assortment. Higher levels of xylovolatiles, namely, whisky lactone, were measured in samples aged using sliced woods. Both the NIR and NMR analyses highlighted similarities among samples refined with oak tablets, differentiating them from the other wood types. Finally, E-nose seemed to be a promising alternative to spectroscopic methods both for the simplicity of sample preparation and method portability