30 research outputs found

    Corrigendum: hypoxic induced decrease in oxygen consumption in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Is Associated with minor increases in Mantle Octopine but no changes in markers of protein turnover

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    Corrige o artigo http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/10858 [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00344.].info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Estimates of metabolic rate and major constituents of metabolic demand in fishes under field conditions: Methods, proxies, and new perspectives

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    Metabolic costs are central to individual energy budgets, making estimates of metabolic rate vital to understanding how an organism interacts with its environment as well as the role of species in their ecosystem. Despite the ecological and commercial importance of fishes, there are currently no widely adopted means of measuring field metabolic rate in fishes. The lack of recognized methods is in part due to the logistical difficulties of measuring metabolic rates in free swimming fishes. However, further development and refinement of techniques applicable for field-based studies on free swimming animals would greatly enhance the capacity to study fish under environmentally relevant conditions. In an effort to foster discussion in this area, from field ecologists to biochemists alike, we review aspects of energy metabolism and give details on approaches that have been used to estimate energetic parameters in fishes. In some cases, the techniques have been applied to field conditions; while in others, the methods have been primarily used on laboratory held fishes but should be applicable, with validation, to fishes in their natural environment. Limitations, experimental considerations and caveats of these measurements and the study of metabolism in wild fishes in general are also discussed. Potential novel approaches to FMR estimates are also presented for consideration. The innovation of methods for measuring field metabolic rate in free-ranging wild fish would revolutionize the study of physiological ecology

    Metabolic rate and rates of protein turnover in food-deprived cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758)

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    To determine the metabolic response to food deprivation, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) juveniles were either fed, fasted (3 to 5 days food deprivation), or starved (12 days food deprivation). Fasting resulted in a decrease in triglyceride levels in the digestive gland, and after 12 days, these lipid reserves were essentially depleted. Oxygen consumption was decreased to 53% and NH4 excretion to 36% of the fed group following 3-5 days of food deprivation. Oxygen consumption remained low in the starved group, but NH4 excretion returned to the level recorded for fed animals during starvation. The fractional rate of protein synthesis of fasting animals decreased to 25% in both mantle and gill compared with fed animals and remained low in the mantle with the onset of starvation. In gill, however, protein synthesis rate increased to a level that was 45% of the fed group during starvation. In mantle, starvation led to an increase in cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like enzyme activity and a 2.3-fold increase in polyubiquitin mRNA that suggested an increase in ubiquitin-proteasome activity. In gill, there was a transient increase in the polyubiquitin transcript levels in the transition from fed through fasted to the starved state and cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like activity was lower in starved compared with fed animals. The response in gill appears more complex, as they better maintain rates of protein synthesis and show no evidence of enhanced protein breakdown through recognized catabolic processes

    Enzymatic capacities of metabolic fuel use in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and responses to food deprivation: insight into the metabolic organization and starvation survival strategy of cephalopods

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    Food limitation is a common challenge for animals. Cephalopods are sensitive to starvation because of high metabolic rates and growth rates related to their "live fast, die young" life history. We investigated how enzymatic capacities of key metabolic pathways are modulated during starvation in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to gain insight into the metabolic organization of cephalopods and their strategies for coping with food limitation. In particular, lipids have traditionally been considered unimportant fuels in cephalopods, yet, puzzlingly, many species (including cuttlefish) mobilize the lipid stores in their digestive gland during starvation. Using a comprehensive multi-tissue assay of enzymatic capacities for energy metabolism, we show that, during long-term starvation (12 days), glycolytic capacity for glucose use is decreased in cuttlefish tissues, while capacities for use of lipid-based fuels (fatty acids and ketone bodies) and amino acid fuels are retained or increased. Specifically, the capacity to use the ketone body acetoacetate as fuel is widespread across tissues and gill has a previously unrecognized capacity for fatty acid catabolism, albeit at low rates. The capacity for de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis), important for glucose homeostasis, likely is restricted to the digestive gland, contrary to previous reports of widespread gluconeogenesis among cephalopod tissues. Short-term starvation (3-5 days) had few effects on enzymatic capacities. Similar to vertebrates, lipid-based fuels, putatively mobilized from fat stores in the digestive gland, appear to be important energy sources for cephalopods, especially during starvation when glycolytic capacity is decreased perhaps to conserve available glucose

    Do prior diel thermal cycles influence the physiological response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to subsequent heat stress?

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    We designed two environmentally relevant thermal cycling regimes using monitoring data from an Atlantic salmon river to determine if exposure to prior diel cycles stimulated protective mechanisms (e.g. heat hardening), and/or resulted in physiological and cellular stress. Wild fish were exposed to three days of diel cycling in the lab and then exposed to an acute thermal challenge near their upper reported critical temperature. We measured routine metabolic rate across the time course as well as indicators of physiological status (e.g. plasma glucose and osmolality) and cellular stress (e.g. heat shock protein 70). We observed that thermal cycling altered physiological and cellular responses, compared to an acute heat shock, but saw no differences between cycling regimes. Unique temperature regime and tissue specific responses were observed in heat shock protein induction, metabolites, haematology and osmotic indicators. Routine metabolic rate was not affected by the thermal cycling and increased according to Q10 predictions. While we report unique physiological and cellular responses between all treatment groups, we did not observe a clear indication of a heat hardening response.The accepted manuscript in pdf format is listed with the files at the bottom of this page. The presentation of the authors' names and (or) special characters in the title of the manuscript may differ slightly between what is listed on this page and what is listed in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript; that in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript is what was submitted by the author

    Physiological responses to a short-term, environmentally realistic, acute heat stress in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

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    Atlantic salmon populations are declining, and warming river temperatures in the summer months are thought to be a significant contributing factor. We describe the time course of cellular and metabolic responses to an ecologically relevant short-term thermal cycle in juvenile Atlantic salmon. We then examined whether this heat event would affect tolerance to a subsequent heat shock in terms of critical thermal maximum (CTmax). Fish induced heat shock protein 70 in red blood cells, heart, liver, and red and white muscle; whole blood glucose and lactate transiently increased during the heat cycle. In contrast, we observed no significant effect of a prior heat shock on CTmax. The CTmax was positively correlated with Fulton鈥檚 condition factor suggesting that fish with greater energy reserves are more thermally tolerant. Atlantic salmon activate cellular protection pathways in response to a single thermal cycle and appear to cope with this short-term, 鈭1 d heat shock, but this challenge may compromise the ability to cope with subsequent heat events

    Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

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    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L-1. In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca2+ handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca2+ levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca2+ flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca2+ sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L-1) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca2+ levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca2+ flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods

    Cloning of GLUT3 cDNA from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in response to hypoxia

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    A putative facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT3, cDNA was cloned from Atlantic cod. It is ubiquitously expressed, with substantial levels in kidney. The 519 aa protein has the highest sequence identity (66.3%) to grass carp GLUT3. Atlantic cod were exposed to a hypoxic challenge (45% DO2) for 24 h and the effects on GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression assessed. GLUT1 expression in gill is upregulated; however, in spleen, there is a significant decrease in both GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression. The increase in GLUT1 mRNA is considered to be associated with an increased energy demand on gill, whereas, the decrease in gene expression in spleen potentially reflects a general decrease in rates of transcription.Peer reviewed: YesNRC publication: Ye
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