525 research outputs found

    Four-nucleon contact interactions from holographic QCD

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    We calculate the low energy constants of four-nucleon interactions in an effective chiral Lagrangian in holographic QCD. We start with a D4-D8 model to obtain meson-nucleon interactions and then integrate out massive mesons to obtain the four-nucleon interactions in 4D. We end up with two low energy constants at the leading order and seven of them at the next leading order, which is consistent with the effective chiral Lagrangian. The values of the low energy constants are evaluated with the first five Kaluza-Klein resonances.Comment: 28 page

    Quantum Gravity in Everyday Life: General Relativity as an Effective Field Theory

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    This article is meant as a summary and introduction to the ideas of effective field theory as applied to gravitational systems. Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Effective Field Theories 3. Low-Energy Quantum Gravity 4. Explicit Quantum Calculations 5. ConclusionsComment: 56 pages, 2 figures, JHEP style, Invited review to appear in Living Reviews of Relativit

    Ultrasoft NLL Running of the Nonrelativistic O(v) QCD Quark Potential

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    Using the nonrelativistic effective field theory vNRQCD, we determine the contribution to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) running of the effective quark-antiquark potential at order v (1/mk) from diagrams with one potential and two ultrasoft loops, v being the velocity of the quarks in the c.m. frame. The results are numerically important and complete the description of ultrasoft next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order effects in heavy quark pair production and annihilation close to threshold.Comment: 25 pages, 7 figures, 3 tables; minor modifications, typos corrected, references added, footnote adde

    An effective theory for jet propagation in dense QCD matter: jet broadening and medium-induced bremsstrahlung

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    Two effects, jet broadening and gluon bremsstrahlung induced by the propagation of a highly energetic quark in dense QCD matter, are reconsidered from effective theory point of view. We modify the standard Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) Lagrangian to include Glauber modes, which are needed to implement the interactions between the medium and the collinear fields. We derive the Feynman rules for this Lagrangian and show that it is invariant under soft and collinear gauge transformations. We find that the newly constructed theory SCETG_{\rm G} recovers exactly the general result for the transverse momentum broadening of jets. In the limit where the radiated gluons are significantly less energetic than the parent quark, we obtain a jet energy-loss kernel identical to the one discussed in the reaction operator approach to parton propagation in matter. In the framework of SCETG_{\rm G} we present results for the fully-differential bremsstrahlung spectrum for both the incoherent and the Landau-Pomeranchunk-Migdal suppressed regimes beyond the soft-gluon approximation. Gauge invariance of the physics results is demonstrated explicitly by performing the calculations in both the light-cone and covariant RξR_{\xi} gauges. We also show how the process-dependent medium-induced radiative corrections factorize from the jet production cross section on the example of the quark jets considered here.Comment: 52 pages, 15 pdf figures, as published in JHE

    Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time.</p> <p>The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>Design: Multicentred randomised trial.</p> <p>Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 36<sup>6 </sup>weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy.</p> <p>Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36<sup>+6 </sup>weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care.</p> <p>Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care, birth will be planned for 38 weeks gestation or later. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve either awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour, or induction of labour if required. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section (after 38 and as close to 39 weeks as possible).</p> <p>Primary Study Outcome: A composite of perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity.</p> <p>Sample Size: 460 women with a twin pregnancy to show a reduction in the composite outcome from 16.3% to 6.7% with adjustment for the clustering of twin infants within mothers (p = 0.05, 80% power).</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>This is a protocol for a randomised trial, the findings of which will contribute information about the optimal time of birth for women with an uncomplicated multiple pregnancy at and beyond 37 weeks gestation.</p> <p>Clinical Trial Registration</p> <p>Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15761056</p

    Using focus groups to design systems science models that promote oral health equity

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    Background While the US population overall has experienced improvements in oral health over the past 60 years, oral diseases remain among the most common chronic conditions across the life course. Further, lack of access to oral health care contributes to profound and enduring oral health inequities worldwide. Vulnerable and underserved populations who commonly lack access to oral health care include racial/ethnic minority older adults living in urban environments. The aim of this study was to use a systematic approach to explicate cause and effect relationships in creating a causal map, a type of concept map in which the links between nodes represent causality or influence. Methods To improve our mental models of the real world and devise strategies to promote oral health equity, methods including system dynamics, agent-based modeling, geographic information science, and social network simulation have been leveraged by the research team. The practice of systems science modeling is situated amidst an ongoing modeling process of observing the real world, formulating mental models of how it works, setting decision rules to guide behavior, and from these heuristics, making decisions that in turn affect the state of the real world. Qualitative data were obtained from focus groups conducted with community-dwelling older adults who self-identify as African American, Dominican, or Puerto Rican to elicit their lived experiences in accessing oral health care in their northern Manhattan neighborhoods. Results The findings of this study support the multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective of access to oral health care and affirm a theorized discrepancy in fit between available dental providers and patients. The lack of information about oral health at the community level may be compromising the use and quality of oral health care among racial/ethnic minority older adults. Conclusions Well-informed community members may fill critical roles in oral health promotion, as they are viewed as highly credible sources of information and recommendations for dental providers. The next phase of this research will involve incorporating the knowledge gained from this study into simulation models that will be used to explore alternative paths toward improving oral health and health care for racial/ethnic minority older adults

    A Formalism for the Systematic Treatment of Rapidity Logarithms in Quantum Field Theory

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    Many observables in QCD rely upon the resummation of perturbation theory to retain predictive power. Resummation follows after one factorizes the cross section into the rele- vant modes. The class of observables which are sensitive to soft recoil effects are particularly challenging to factorize and resum since they involve rapidity logarithms. In this paper we will present a formalism which allows one to factorize and resum the perturbative series for such observables in a systematic fashion through the notion of a "rapidity renormalization group". That is, a Collin-Soper like equation is realized as a renormalization group equation, but has a more universal applicability to observables beyond the traditional transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs) and the Sudakov form factor. This formalism has the feature that it allows one to track the (non-standard) scheme dependence which is inherent in any scenario where one performs a resummation of rapidity divergences. We present a pedagogical introduction to the formalism by applying it to the well-known massive Sudakov form factor. The formalism is then used to study observables of current interest. A factorization theorem for the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs production is presented along with the result for the resummed cross section at NLL. Our formalism allows one to define gauge invariant TMDPDFs which are independent of both the hard scattering amplitude and the soft function, i.e. they are uni- versal. We present details of the factorization and resummation of the jet broadening cross section including a renormalization in pT space. We furthermore show how to regulate and renormalize exclusive processes which are plagued by endpoint singularities in such a way as to allow for a consistent resummation.Comment: Typos in Appendix C corrected, as well as a typo in eq. 5.6
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