3,186 research outputs found

    e+ee^{+}e^{-} pairs from a nuclear transition signaling an elusive light neutral boson

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    Electron-positron pairs have been observed in the 10.95-MeV 00+0^-\to0^+ decay in 16^{16}O. The branching ratio of the e+^+e^- pairs compared to the 3.84-MeV 02+0^-\to2^+ γ\gamma decay of the level is deduced to be 20(5)×10520(5)\times10^{-5}. This magnetic monopole (M0) transition cannot proceed by γ\gamma-ray decay and is, to first order, forbidden for internal pair creation. However, the transition may also proceed by the emission of a light neutral 00^{-} or 1+1^{+} boson. Indeed, we do observe a sharp peak in the e+ee^{+}e^{-} angular correlation with all the characteristics belonging to the intermediate emission of such a boson with an invariant mass of 8.5(5) MeV/c2^2. It may play a role in the current quest for light dark matter in the universe.Comment: 6 page

    Investigation of Pygmy Dipole Resonances in the Tin Region

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    The evolution of the low-energy electromagnetic dipole response with the neutron excess is investigated along the Sn isotopic chain within an approach incorporating Hartree-Fock-Bogoljubov (HFB) and multi-phonon Quasiparticle-Phonon-Model (QPM) theory. General aspects of the relationship of nuclear skins and dipole sum rules are discussed. Neutron and proton transition densities serve to identify the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) as a generic mode of excitation. The PDR is distinct from the GDR by its own characteristic pattern given by a mixture of isoscalar and isovector components. Results for the 100^{100}Sn-132^{132}Sn isotopes and the several N=82 isotones are presented. In the heavy Sn-isotopes the PDR excitations are closely related to the thickness of the neutron skin. Approaching 100^{100}Sn a gradual change from a neutron to a proton skin is found and the character of the PDR is changed correspondingly. A delicate balance between Coulomb and strong interaction effects is found. The fragmentation of the PDR strength in 124^{124}Sn is investigated by multi-phonon calculations. Recent measurements of the dipole response in 130,132^{130,132}Sn are well reproduced.Comment: 41 pages, 10 figures, PR

    A Re-evaluation of Evidence for Light Neutral Bosons in Nuclear Emulsions

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    Electron-positron pair-production data obtained by bombardment of emulsion detectors with either cosmic rays or projectiles with mass between one and 207 and kinetic energies between 18 GeV and 32 TeV have been re-analysed using a consistent and conservative model of the background from electromagnetic pair conversion. The combined data yield a spectrum of putative neutral bosons decaying to e+e- pairs, with masses between 3 and 20 MeV/c^2 and femtosecond lifetimes. The statistical significance against background for these "X-bosons" varies between 2 and 8 sigma. The cross-section for direct production of X-bosons increases slowly with projectile energy, remaining over 1,000 times smaller the the pion production cross-section.Comment: major revision with improved figures; accepted by Int J Mod Phys

    Transmission resonance spectroscopy in the third minimum of 232Pa

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    The fission probability of 232Pa was measured as a function of the excitation energy in order to search for hyperdeformed (HD) transmission resonances using the (d,pf) transfer reaction on a radioactive 231Pa target. The experiment was performed at the Tandem accelerator of the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory (MLL) at Garching using the 231Pa(d,pf) reaction at a bombarding energy of E=12 MeV and with an energy resolution of dE=5.5 keV. Two groups of transmission resonances have been observed at excitation energies of E=5.7 and 5.9 MeV. The fine structure of the resonance group at E=5.7 MeV could be interpreted as overlapping rotational bands with a rotational parameter characteristic to a HD nuclear shape. The fission barrier parameters of 232Pa have been determined by fitting TALYS 1.2 nuclear reaction code calculations to the overall structure of the fission probability. From the average level spacing of the J=4 states, the excitation energy of the ground state of the 3rd minimum has been deduced to be E(III)=5.05 MeV.Comment: 6 pages, 8 figure

    Observation of Anomalous Internal Pair Creation in 8^8Be: A Possible Signature of a Light, Neutral Boson

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    Electron-positron angular correlations were measured for the isovector magnetic dipole 17.6 MeV state (Jπ=1+J^\pi=1^+, T=1T=1) \rightarrow ground state (Jπ=0+J^\pi=0^+, T=0T=0) and the isoscalar magnetic dipole 18.15 MeV (Jπ=1+J^\pi=1^+, T=0T=0) state \rightarrow ground state transitions in 8^{8}Be. Significant deviation from the internal pair creation was observed at large angles in the angular correlation for the isoscalar transition with a confidence level of >5σ> 5\sigma. This observation might indicate that, in an intermediate step, a neutral isoscalar particle with a mass of 16.70±0.35\pm0.35 (stat)±0.5\pm 0.5 (sys) MeV/c2/c^2 and Jπ=1+J^\pi = 1^+ was created.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Observation of the X17 anomaly in the decay of the Giant Dipole Resonance of 8^8Be

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    Angular correlation spectra of e+ee^+e^- pairs produced in the 7^{7}Li(pp,γ\gamma)8^{8}Be nuclear reaction were studied at a proton beam energy of EpE_p~=~4.0~MeV, which corresponds to the excitation energy of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) in 8^8Be. The spectra measured show a peak like anomaly at 120^\circ and a broader anomaly also above 140^\circ. Both anomalies could consistently be described by assuming that the same hypothetical X17 particle was created both in the ground-state transition and in the transition going to the broad (Γ\Gamma=1.5~MeV), first excited state in 8^8Be. The invariant mass of the particle, which was derived to be mXc2=16.95±0.48m_Xc^2 = 16.95 \pm 0.48(stat.)~MeV, agrees well with our previously published values.Comment: 5 pages, 7 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2209.1079

    Signature of Shallow Potentials in Deep Sub-barrier Fusion Reactions

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    We extend a recent study that explained the steep falloff in the fusion cross section at energies far below the Coulomb barrier for the symmetric dinuclear system 64Ni+64Ni to another symmetric system, 58Ni+58Ni, and the asymmetric system 64Ni+100Mo. In this scheme the very sensitive dependence of the internal part of the nuclear potential on the nuclear equation of state determines a reduction of the classically allowed region for overlapping configurations and consequently a decrease in the fusion cross sections at bombarding energies far below the barrier. Within the coupled-channels method, including couplings to the low-lying 2+ and 3- states in both target and projectile as well as mutual and two-phonon excitations of these states, we calculate and compare with the experimental fusion cross sections, S-factors, and logarithmic derivatives for the above mentioned systems and find good agreement with the data even at the lowest energies. We predict, in particular, a distinct double peaking in the S-factor for the far subbarrier fusion of 58Ni+58Ni which should be tested experimentally.Comment: 34 pages, 10 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Systematically Exploring High-Performance Representations of Vector Fields Through Compile-Time Composition

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    We present a novel benchmark suite for implementations of vector fields in high-performance computing environments to aid developers in quantifying and ranking their performance. We decompose the design space of such benchmarks into access patterns and storage backends, the latter of which can be further decomposed into components with different functional and non-functional properties. Through compile-time meta-programming, we generate a large number of benchmarks with minimal effort and ensure the extensibility of our suite. Our empirical analysis, based on real-world applications in high-energy physics, demonstrates the feasibility of our approach on CPU and GPU platforms, and highlights that our suite is able to evaluate performance-critical design choices. Finally, we propose that our work towards composing vector fields from elementary components is not only useful for the purposes of benchmarking, but that it naturally gives rise to a novel library for implementing such fields in domain applications

    Outlook for b and c physics at the LHC in ATLAS and CMS

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    An overview is presented for the planned B-physics programme of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC. The physics programmes of both experiments have been prepared for the different running conditions of the accelerator. Analyses and their expected sensitivities are presented, which are planned for different luminosity configurations of the LHC

    Top trigger strategies in ATLAS

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    Trigger strategies foir top studies in ATLAS are reviewe
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