6 research outputs found

    Synthesis, Structure, and SAR of Tetrahydropyran-Based LpxC Inhibitors

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    In the search for novel Gram-negative agents, we performed a comprehensive search of the AstraZeneca collection and identified a tetrahydropyran-based matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor that demonstrated nanomolar inhibition of UDP-3-<i>O</i>-(acyl)-<i>N</i>-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC). Crystallographic studies in <i>Aquifex aeolicus</i> LpxC indicated the tetrahydropyran engaged in the same hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions as other known inhibitors. Systematic optimization of three locales on the scaffold provided compounds with improved Gram-negative activity. However, the optimization of LpxC activity was not accompanied by reduced inhibition of MMPs. Comparison of the crystal structure of the native product, UDP-3-<i>O</i>-(acyl)-glucosamine, in <i>Aquifex aeolicus</i> to the structure of a tetrahydropyran-based inhibitor indicates pathways for future optimization

    Boosting Intracellular Delivery of Lipid Nanoparticle-Encapsulated mRNA

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    Intracellular delivery of mRNA holds great potential for vaccine− and therapeutic discovery and development. Despite increasing recognition of the utility of lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) for intracellular delivery of mRNA, particle engineering is hindered by insufficient understanding of endosomal escape, which is believed to be a main limiter of cytosolic availability and activity of the nucleic acid inside the cell. Using a series of CRISPR-based genetic perturbations of the lysosomal pathway, we have identified that late endosome/lysosome (LE/Ly) formation is essential for functional delivery of exogenously presented mRNA. Lysosomes provide a spatiotemporal hub to orchestrate mTOR signaling and are known to control cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, ribosomal biogenesis, and mRNA translation. Through modulation of the mTOR pathway we were able to enhance or inhibit LNP-mediated mRNA delivery. To further boost intracellular delivery of mRNA, we screened 212 bioactive lipid-like molecules that are either enriched in vesicular compartments or modulate cell signaling. Surprisingly, we have discovered that leukotriene-antagonists, clinically approved for treatment of asthma and other lung diseases, enhance intracellular mRNA delivery in vitro (over 3-fold, <i>p</i> < 0.005) and in vivo (over 2-fold, <i>p</i> < 0.005). Understanding LNP-mediated intracellular delivery will inspire the next generation of RNA therapeutics that have high potency and limited toxicity

    SAR and Structural Analysis of Siderophore-Conjugated Monocarbam Inhibitors of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> PBP3

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    A main challenge in the development of new agents for the treatment of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> infections is the identification of chemotypes that efficiently penetrate the cell envelope and are not susceptible to established resistance mechanisms. Siderophore-conjugated monocarbams are attractive because of their ability to hijack the bacteria’s iron uptake machinery for transport into the periplasm and their inherent stability to metallo-β-lactamases. Through development of the SAR we identified a number of modifications to the scaffold that afforded active anti-<i>P. aeruginosa</i> agents with good physicochemical properties. Through crystallographic efforts we gained a better understanding into how these compounds bind to the target penicillin binding protein PBP3 and factors to consider for future design

    Discovery of Efficacious Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Targeted Siderophore-Conjugated Monocarbams by Application of a Semi-mechanistic Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model

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    To identify new agents for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we focused on siderophore-conjugated monocarbams. This class of monocyclic β-lactams are stable to metallo-β-lactamases and have excellent P. aeruginosa activities due to their ability to exploit the iron uptake machinery of Gram-negative bacteria. Our medicinal chemistry plan focused on identifying a molecule with optimal potency and physical properties and activity for in vivo efficacy. Modifications to the monocarbam linker, siderophore, and oxime portion of the molecules were examined. Through these efforts, a series of pyrrolidinone-based monocarbams with good P. aeruginosa cellular activity (P. aeruginosa MIC<sub>90</sub> = 2 μg/mL), free fraction levels (>20% free), and hydrolytic stability (<i>t</i><sub>1/2</sub> ≥ 100 h) were identified. To differentiate the lead compounds and enable prioritization for in vivo studies, we applied a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to enable prediction of in vivo efficacy from in vitro data
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