8,044 research outputs found

    Temporal 1/f^\alpha Fluctuations from Fractal Magnetic Fields in Black Hole Accretion Flow

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    Rapid fluctuation with a frequency dependence of 1/fα1/f^{\alpha} (with α12\alpha \simeq 1 - 2) is characteristic of radiation from black-hole objects. Its origin remains poorly understood. We examine the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation data, finding that a magnetized accretion disk exhibits both 1/fα1/f^\alpha fluctuation (with α2\alpha \simeq 2) and a fractal magnetic structure (with the fractal dimension of D1.9D \sim 1.9). The fractal field configuration leads reconnection events with a variety of released energy and of duration, thereby producing 1/fα1/f^\alpha fluctuations.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in PASJ Letters, vol. 52 No.1 (Feb 2000

    The Largest Blueshifts of [O III] emission line in Two Narrow-Line Quasars

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    We have obtained optical intermediate resolution spectra (R = 3000) of the narrow-line quasars DMS 0059-0055 and PG 1543+489. The [O III] emission line in DMS 0059-0055 is blueshifted by 880 km/s relative to Hbeta. We also confirm that the [O III] emission line in PG 1543+489 has a relative blueshift of 1150 km/s. These two narrow-line quasars show the largest [O III] blueshifts known to date among type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The [O III] emission lines in both objects are broad (1000 - 2000 km/s) and those in DMS 0059-0055 show strong blue asymmetry. We interpret the large blueshift and the profile of the [O III] lines as the result of an outflow interacting with circumnuclear gas. Among type 1 AGNs with large blueshifted [O III], there is no correlation between the Eddington ratios and the amount of [O III] blueshifts. Combining our new data with published results, we confirm that the Eddington ratios of the such AGNs are the highest among AGNs with the same black hole masses. These facts suggest that the Eddington ratio is a necessary condition or the [O III] blueshifts weakly depend on the Eddington ratio. Our new sample suggests that there are possible necessary conditions to produce an outflow besides a high Eddington ratio: large black hole mass (> 10^7 M_solar) or high mass accretion rate (> 2 M_solar/yr) or large luminosity (lambda L_{lambda} (5100A) > 10^44.6 erg/s).Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    In-situ growth of superconducting NdFeAs(O,F) thin films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

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    The recently discovered high temperature superconductor F-doped LaFeAsO and related compounds represent a new class of superconductors with the highest transition temperature (Tc) apart from the cuprates. The studies ongoing worldwide are revealing that these Fe-based superconductors are forming a unique class of materials that are interesting from the viewpoint of applications. To exploit the high potential of the Fe-based superconductors for device applications, it is indispensable to establish a process that enables the growth of high quality thin films. Efforts of thin film preparation started soon after the discovery of Fe-based superconductors, but none of the earlier attempts had succeeded in an in-situ growth of a superconducting film of LnFeAs(O,F) (Ln=lanthanide), which exhibits the highest Tc to date among the Fe-based superconductors. Here, we report on the successful growth of NdFeAs(O,F) thin films on GaAs substrates, which showed well-defined superconducting transitions up to 48 K without the need of an ex-situ heat treatment

    HIF-2α as a possible therapeutic target of osteoarthritis

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    SummaryObjectiveEndochondral ossification, a conversion process from nonvascularized and hypoxic cartilage to highly vascularized bone, plays a crucial role in osteoarthritis (OA) development as well as in physiological skeletal growth. We have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α, encoded by EPAS1) is an extensive regulator of the endochondal ossification process. Here we review the possible signaling network regulating OA development on the axis of HIF-2α.MethodsPeer reviewed publications published prior to August 2010 were searched in the Pubmed database. Articles that were relevant to HIF and molecular mechanisms of the endochondral ossification and OA were selected.ResultsAs a trigger of OA, mechanical stress may induce the upstream NF-κB signal and HIF-2α expression in joint cartilage of mice and humans, which causes transactivation of endochondral ossification-related molecules with the most potent β-subunit partner aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL). In contrast to HIF-2α, HIF-1α functions to maintain cartilage via a distinct mechanism, so that the shifting of the HIFs might possibly be involved in an OA pathogenesis.ConclusionSignals on the HIF-2α axis from NF-κB signaling to the endochondral ossification-related molecules, possibly in combination with HIF-2α and ARNTL, may represent a rational therapeutic target for OA with minimal effects on physiological skeletal homeostasis