570 research outputs found

    Spatial and temporal plasticity of chromatin during programmed DNA-reorganization in Stylonychia macronuclear development

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    Background: In this study we exploit the unique genome organization of ciliates to characterize the biological function of histone modification patterns and chromatin plasticity for the processing of specific DNA sequences during a nuclear differentiation process. Ciliates are single-cell eukaryotes containing two morphologically and functionally specialized types of nuclei, the somatic macronucleus and the germline micronucleus. In the course of sexual reproduction a new macronucleus develops from a micronuclear derivative. During this process specific DNA sequences are eliminated from the genome, while sequences that will be transcribed in the mature macronucleus are retained. Results: We show by immunofluorescence microscopy, Western analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments that each nuclear type establishes its specific histone modification signature. Our analyses reveal that the early macronuclear anlage adopts a permissive chromatin state immediately after the fusion of two heterochromatic germline micronuclei. As macronuclear development progresses, repressive histone modifications that specify sequences to be eliminated are introduced de novo. ChIP analyses demonstrate that permissive histone modifications are associated with sequences that will be retained in the new macronucleus. Furthermore, our data support the hypothesis that a PIWI-family protein is involved in a transnuclear cross-talk and in the RNAi-dependent control of developmental chromatin reorganization. Conclusion: Based on these data we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatial and temporal pattern of histone modifications during this nuclear differentiation process. Results obtained in this study may also be relevant for our understanding of chromatin plasticity during metazoan embryogenesis

    Reconstruction of the acetabulum in THA using femoral head autografts in developmental dysplasia of the hip

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Severe acetabular deficiencies in cases of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) often require complex reconstructive procedures in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The use of autologous femoral head grafts for acetabular reconstruction has been described, but few data is available about clinical results, the rates of non-union or aseptic loosening of acetabular components.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In a retrospective approach, 101 patients with 118 THA requiring autologous femoral head grafts to the acetabulum because of DDH were included. Six patients had died, another 6 were lost to follow-up, and 104 hips were available for clinical and radiological evaluation at a mean of 68 ± 15 (13 to 159) months.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The average Merle d'Aubigné hip score improved from 9 to 16 points. Seven implants had to be revised due to aseptic loosening (6.7%). The revisions were performed 90 ± 34 (56 to 159) months after implantation. The other hips showed a stable position of the sockets without any signs of bony non-union, severe radiolucencies at the implant-graft interface or significant resorption of the graft.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The use of autologous femoral head grafts with cementless cups in primary THA can achieve promising short- to midterm results in patients with dysplastic hips.</p

    Polarization Correlations of 1S0 Proton Pairs as Tests of Bell and Wigner Inequalities

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    In an experiment designed to overcome the loophole of observer dependent reality and satisfying the counterfactuality condition, we measured polarization correlations of 1S0 proton pairs produced in 12C(d,2He) and 1H(d,He) reactions in one setting. The results of these measurements are used to test the Bell and Wigner inequalties against the predictions of quantum mechanics.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    92 Zr ( n , γ ) and ( n ,tot) measurements at the GELINA and n_TOF facilities

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    Background: Stellar nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than iron is driven by neutron capture processes. 92Zr is positioned at a strategic point along the slow nucleosynthesis path, given its proximity to the neutron magic number N = 50 and its position at the matching region between the weak and main slow processes. Purpose: In parallel with recent improved astronomical data, the extraction of accurate Maxwellian averaged cross sections (MACSs) derived from a more complete and accurate set of resonance parameters should allow for a better understanding of the stellar conditions at which nucleosynthesis takes place. Methods: Transmission and capture cross section measurements using enriched 92Zr metallic samples were performed at the time-of flight facilities GELINA of JRC-Geel (BE) and n_TOF of CERN (CH). The neutron beam passing through the samples was investigated in transmission measurements at GELINA using a Li-glass scintillator. The γ rays emitted during the neutron capture reactions were detected by C6D6 detectors at both GELINA and n_TOF. Results: Resonance parameters of individual resonances up to 81 keV were extracted from a combined resonance shape analysis of experimental transmissions and capture yields. For the majority of the resonances the parity was determined from an analysis of the transmission data obtained with different sample thicknesses. Average resonance parameters were calculated. Conclusions: Maxwellian averaged cross sections were extracted from resonances observed up to 81 keV. The MACS for kT = 30 keV is fully consistent with experimental data reported in the literature. The MACSs for kT 15 keV are in good agreement with those derived from the ENDF/B-VIII.0 library and recommended in the KADONIS database. For kT higher than 30 keV differences are observed. A comparison with MACSs obtained with the cross sections recommended in the JEFF-3.3 and JENDL-4.0 libraries shows discrepancies even for kT 15 keV.European Community Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2011 under the Project CHANDA (Grant No. 605203
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