1,880 research outputs found

    Modular trigger processing: The GCT muon and quiet bit system

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    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system's HCAL Muon and Quiet bit reformatting function is being implemented with a novel processing architecture. This architecture utilizes micro TCA, a modern modular communications standard based on high speed serial links, to implement a processing matrix. This matrix is configurable in both logical functionality and data flow, allowing far greater flexibility than current trigger processing systems. In addition, the modular nature of this architecture allows flexibility in scale unmatched by traditional approaches. The Muon and Quiet bit system consists of two major components, a custom micro TCA backplane and processing module. These components are based on Xilinx Virtex5 and Mindspeed crosspoint switch devices, bringing together state of the art FPGA based processing and Telcom switching technologies

    The impact of prenatal parental locus of control on children's psychological outcomes in infancy and early childhood:a prospective 5 year study

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    Locus of control is one of the most widely studied concepts in the history of personality psychology. In spite of its popularity and its associations with numerous relevant outcomes, the ability of locus of control to predict future behaviors involving parenting effectiveness has been under researched. The few parent locus of control children's outcome studies are characterized by cross-sectional methodologies that focus on mothers. The present study uses a prospective methodology to compare data on mothers' and fathers' locus of control with their child's behavior outcomes from a large scale research project, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Based on Rotter's Social Learning Theory published in 1954 and past empirical research, it was predicted and found that parent internality was associated with more positive child outcomes than parent externality. More specifically, when both parents were internal, their children had more positive outcomes in sleeping, eating, and tantrum behavior as compared to any other parent locus of control combination. However external parents had a less restrictive attitude which appeared to have a more beneficial effect on picky eating. Results confirmed how important parent locus of control is in the lives of children. Based on the findings, researchers are urged to develop interventions to change advice to parents and promote more internal locus of control among parents

    Parental spiritual and religious beliefs and behaviour data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, 2020

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    There are few studies that chart the ways in which the religious beliefs and practices of parents and their offspring vary over time. Even fewer can relate this to aspects of their physical and mental health or distinguish the different facets of the environment that may have influenced the development or loss of religious/spiritual belief and behaviours over time. This paper describes the recent data collection in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) on the beliefs and behaviours of the study parents some 27-28 years after the first measures were collected. Questions that were previously administered to the mother and her partner on religion, spirituality, behaviours, and beliefs (RSBB) were repeated for the fourth time, together with enhanced data on RSBB. The new data are described and compared with previous responses. The most notable difference between the 9 year and the 2020 sweep was the increase of professed non-believers in both the mothers (17.5% vs 29.8%) and partners (31.9% vs. 45.3%). As expected, on each occasion study partners were less likely to acknowledge RSBB compared to the study mothers. In the latest sweep, respondents were less likely to be unsure if they believed and more likely to not believe. Responses to “Do you believe in God or a divine power?” in mothers ranged from 49.9% stating ‘yes’ antenatally to 43.5% doing so in 2020; 14.9% vs 29.8% for ‘no’ and 35.2% to 26.6% for ‘not sure’. For partners, the corresponding figures are: ‘yes’ 37.0% vs. 30.0%; ‘no’ 28.6% vs. 45.3% and ‘not sure’ 34.5% vs. 24.6%. We plan to undertake detailed analyses of the antecedents and consequences of RBSS. All data are available for use by interested researchers

    Are prenatal mercury levels associated with subsequent blood pressure in childhood and adolescence?:The Avon prebirth cohort study

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    OBJECTIVES: There have been conflicting data suggesting that prenatal mercury exposure is associated with adverse cardiovascular measures in children. We therefore analysed a large prospective population study to investigate whether prenatal mercury exposure might influence offspring blood pressure (BP) and heart rate adversely. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort. SETTING: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). PARTICIPANTS: Maternal whole blood collected in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury and selenium. The offspring were followed throughout childhood and adolescence. OUTCOME MEASURES: Offspring resting BP and heart rates measured under standard conditions on six occasions between ages 7 and 17 years (numbers analysed: 1754 at 7 years to 1102 at 17). RESULTS: Statistical analyses took account of various factors present in pregnancy, including family adversity, maternal age, parity, smoking and alcohol intake. Unadjusted and adjusted regression analyses assessed the relationship between maternal prenatal mercury levels and offspring resting systolic and diastolic BP, and heart rates. A final set of analyses took account of selenium. Each analysis was carried out for all offspring, those whose mothers had, and those that had not, consumed fish during pregnancy. Further analysis for all offspring ascertained whether there were significant interaction effects between the sexes. There was little evidence to suggest that prenatal mercury exposure resulted in a clinically important increase in offspring BP in the whole group, since no effect size for an increase of 1 SD of blood mercury level was >0.3 mm Hg. Only 1 association was significant at p<0.05 and therefore likely due to chance. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal mercury exposure has adverse long-term effects on offspring BP or heart rates during childhood or adolescence

    Prenatal mercury exposure and offspring behaviour in childhood and adolescence

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    AbstractBackgroundThere is considerable discussion over the possible harm caused by fetal exposure to mercury, but evidence of such harm is contradictory at levels commonly found in populations with moderate intakes of fish. Further information is needed to inform debate and clarify policy recommendations.MaterialData were collected prospectively for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Whole blood taken in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury. The outcomes were offspring behavioural assessments collected using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at seven time points between ages 4 and 16–17 years; five were completed by the mother and two by the teacher. Socioeconomic and biological confounders were first taken into account; further analyses added maternal blood selenium. Separate analyses compared the relationships between prenatal mercury levels and behaviour traits treated as continuous measures in women who ate fish with those who ate no fish in order to determine whether the relationships differed; the hypothesis was that fish consumption had benefits on the brain and masked any mercury effects. In order to prevent Type II errors, the P value for significance was set at 0.10.ResultsPrenatal mercury measurements and offspring behaviour results were available for between 2776 (at 47 months) to 1599 mother-child pairs (at 16–17 years). Even given a P value of 0.10, the number of significant results was no greater than expected apart from the relationships with peer problems at 4, 6 and 10–11 years where the relationships with prenatal mercury were negative (i.e. the greater the level of mercury the fewer the problems the child had with his/her peers). There were no significant differences between the associations with mercury found among the offspring of women who ate fish in pregnancy and those who did not, nor did adjustment for selenium make a difference.ConclusionsThere were no adverse effects of maternal prenatal mercury levels on the behaviour of the offspring. A similar lack of relationship was found when the analyses were confined to those offspring whose mothers had eaten fish in pregnancy, and no consistent differences were found between the fish and non-fish eaters

    Data relating to early child development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), their relationship with prenatal blood mercury and stratification by fish consumption.

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    As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of early child development were collected using both hands-on expert assessment (on a random 10% sub-sample) by trained psychologists at 18 months using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (Extended 0–8 years) and from detailed questionnaires completed by the study mothers on the whole cohort using assessments based on the Denver Developmental Screening Test. The development determined by the psychologists on the 10% subsample showed a correlation of 0.49 (R. Wilson, 2003) [9] with the developmental level estimated from the maternal report. Maternal reports were used to determine the associations between prenatal blood mercury levels and scores of social achievement, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and communication at various preschool ages. (For results, please see doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2016.02.006 [1].