125 research outputs found

    Social networks: Effects and formation

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    Social networks affect individual behavior as well as social phenomena resulting from behavior ('effects'). Also, when actors can choose with whom to interact, social networks themselves are shaped by behavior ('formation'). This chapter provides a selective overview of rigorous sociology on effects of social networks and their formation. We discuss two examples ('case studies'). One is on effects of exogenously given network characteristics, the other on endogenous network formation. Our examples highlight how micro-macro models account for effects and formation of social networks

    Stochastic network modeling as generative social science

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    Rigorous sociology

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    Social networks: Effects and formation

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    Social networks affect individual behavior as well as social phenomena resulting from behavior ('effects'). Also, when actors can choose with whom to interact, social networks themselves are shaped by behavior ('formation'). This chapter provides a selective overview of rigorous sociology on effects of social networks and their formation. We discuss two examples ('case studies'). One is on effects of exogenously given network characteristics, the other on endogenous network formation. Our examples highlight how micro-macro models account for effects and formation of social networks

    The climate crisis: what sociology can contribute

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    Climate change provides a major challenge to contemporary societies. Whether the problem is best portrayed as our house being on fire (Thunberg 2019) or as our house being imperceptibly eaten away by dry rot, there is little doubt that we do indeed have a problem. Global temperatures have risen substantially, and heatwaves, hurricanes, floods, and droughts have become increasingly common. There is overwhelming evidence that these trends are, at least for a large part, caused by human activity, with increases in greenhouse gas emissions being the prime culprit (IPCC 2015). According to some analysts, we have entered a new geological era, the Anthropocene, in which humankind has become a global geological force in its own right (Steffen et al. 2011)

    Rigorous sociology

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    Heterogeneity, trust and common-pool resource management

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    Measurements of ttˉt\bar{t} differential cross-sections of highly boosted top quarks decaying to all-hadronic final states in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13\, TeV using the ATLAS detector

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    Measurements are made of differential cross-sections of highly boosted pair-produced top quarks as a function of top-quark and ttˉt\bar{t} system kinematic observables using proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=13\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36.136.1 fb1^{-1}, recorded in 2015 and 2016 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Events with two large-radius jets in the final state, one with transverse momentum pT>500p_{\rm T} > 500 GeV and a second with pT>350p_{\rm T}>350 GeV, are used for the measurement. The top-quark candidates are separated from the multijet background using jet substructure information and association with a bb-tagged jet. The measured spectra are corrected for detector effects to a particle-level fiducial phase space and a parton-level limited phase space, and are compared to several Monte Carlo simulations by means of calculated χ2\chi^2 values. The cross-section for ttˉt\bar{t} production in the fiducial phase-space region is 292±7 (stat)±76(syst)292 \pm 7 \ \rm{(stat)} \pm 76 \rm{(syst)} fb, to be compared to the theoretical prediction of 384±36384 \pm 36 fb

    Religious polarization: contesting religion in secularized Western European countries

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    In light of recent claims about increasing religious polarization in secularized countries, we study the extent to which the non-religious contest religion in Western European countries and whether and how the Protestant and Catholic heritage of these countries plays a role in this. Analyzing data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP 1998 and 2008) data by means of multilevel analysis, we demonstrate that religious polarization is stronger in the most secularized countries and in countries with a Catholic religious heritage. Moreover, in secular countries, polarization stems from religious fervency, whereas in countries with a Catholic heritage, it stems from anti-religious fervency

    How established parties reduce other parties’ electoral support:The strategy of parroting the pariah

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    In every democracy, established political parties are challenged by other parties. Established parties react in various ways to other parties’ presence. A key hypothesis in the relevant literature is that established parties can decrease another party’s electoral support by parroting it, i.e. adopting its core policy issue position. This article argues, and demonstrates empirically, that this hypothesised effect mainly occurs in the event that a critical prerequisite is in place. Parroting a party decreases its support only if that party is ostracised at the same time. The article classifies a party as ostracised if its largest established competitor systematically rules out all political cooperation with it. Analysing 296 election results of 28 West European parties (1944–2011), evidence is found for a parrot effect – however, concerning ostracised parties only. On several occasions established parties have substantially decreased another party’s support by simultaneously parroting that party and ostracising it
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