2,982 research outputs found

    Generalization of exotic quark searches

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    General limits on exotic heavy quarks T, B and X with masses above 300 GeV are presented for arbitrary branching fractions of T=>Wb, T=>Zt, T=>Ht, B=>Wt, B=>Zb, B=>Hb and X=>Wt. The results are based on a CMS search in final states with three isolated leptons (electron or muon) or two isolated leptons with the same electric charge. Exotic heavy quark pair production through the strong interaction is considered. In the context of vector-like quark models, T quarks with a mass mT < 480 GeV and mT < 550 GeV are excluded for weak isospin singlets and doublets, respectively, and B quarks with a mass mB < 480 GeV are excluded for singlets, all at 95% confidence level. Mass limits at 95% confidence level for T and B singlets, (T,B) doublets and (X,T) doublets are presented as a function of the corresponding heavy quark masses. For equal mass mT = mB and mX = mT vector-like quarks are excluded at 95% confidence level with masses below 550 GeV for T and B singlets, 640 GeV for a (T,B) doublet and 640 GeV for a (X,T) doublet.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, one tabl

    Alignment validation

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    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under construction at CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector and the muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignment information is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments

    Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers

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    Lasers generating short pulses - referred to as ultrafast lasers - enable many applications in science and technology. Numerous laboratory experiments have confirmed that ultrafast lasers can significantly increase telecommunication data rates [1], improve computer interconnects, and optically clock microprocessors [2, 3]. New applications in metrology [4], supercontinuum generation [5], and life sciences with two-photon microscopy [6] only work with ultrashort pulses but have relied on bulky and complex ultrafast solid-state lasers. Semiconductor lasers are ideally suited for mass production and widespread applications, because they are based on a wafer-scale technology with a high level of integration. Not surprisingly, the first lasers entering virtually every household were semiconductor lasers in compact disk players. Here we introduce a new concept and make the first feasibility demonstration of a new class of ultrafast semiconductor lasers which are power scalable, support both optical and electrical pumping and allow for wafer-scale fabrication. The laser beam propagates vertically (perpendicularly) through the epitaxial layer structure which has both gain and absorber layers integrated. In contrast to edge-emitters, these lasers have semiconductor layers that can be optimized separately by using different growth parameters and with no regrowth. This is especially important to integrate the gain and absorber layers, which require different quantum confinement. A saturable absorber is required for pulse generation and we optimized its parameters with a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot layer at low growth temperatures. We refer to this class of devices as modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting lasers (MIXSEL). Vertical integration supports a diffraction-limited circular output beam, transform-limited pulses, lower timing jitter, and synchronization to an external electronic clock. The pulse repetition rate scales from 1-GHz to 100-GHz by simply changing the laser cavity length. This result holds promise for semiconductor-based high-volume wafer-scale fabrication of compact, ultrafast laser

    Transarterielle Chemoembolisation als Selektionsmarker fĂŒr Patienten mit HCC vor LTX unter retrospektiver Zuhilfenahme histologischer Ergebnisse [meeting abstract]

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    Einleitung: FĂŒr die meisten Patienten mit HCC ist die LTX die einzige kurative Behandlungsoption. Bei diesen Patienten scheint eine Kontrolle der Erkrankung durch lokale Verfahren im Intervall bis zur LTX zu erreichen zu sein. Als das beste Verfahren gilt die transarterielle Chemoembolisation (TACE). Die EffektivitĂ€t ist jedoch umstritten. Möglicherweise kann sie aber Patienten startifizieren, die ein hohes Rezidivrisiko haben. Material und Methoden: Im Zeitraum zwischen 1995 und 2005 wurden n=27 Patienten mit HCC im Alter zwischen 22 und 69 Jahren transplantiert. Hiervon erhielten n=15 Patienten eine Vorbehandlung in Form einer alleinigen TACE oder kombiniert mit PEI [n=1] bzw. LITT [n=1]. Retrospektiv wurde das GesamtĂŒberleben sowie das „Event-free-survival“ (Rezidiv, Reinfektion und Tod) analysiert. Ergebnisse: Die mittlere Wartezeit betrug bei Patienten in der TACE-Gruppe 214 Tage, bei Patienten ohne Vorbehandlung 133 Tage. Bei einem mittleren Nachbeobachtungszeitraum von 1097 ± 1193 Tagen fĂŒr TACE-Patienten und 1674 ± 966 Tagen fĂŒr non-TACE-Patienten betrug das Überleben fĂŒr Patienten, die mit TACE vorbehandelt wurden 83,3%, fĂŒr Patienten, die keine TACE erhielten 86.7% (p=0,5693). Gleiches fand sich fĂŒr das Event-free-survival (p=0,8823). Das GesamtĂŒberleben der Patienten, die auf der Warteliste einen Tumorprogress hatten lag bei 77%, wĂ€hrend Patienten mit stabiler TumorgrĂ¶ĂŸe oder Regredienz der Tumore ein Überleben von 93% aufwiesen (p=0,0153). Unter TACE-Behandlung zeigten 5/15 Patienten eine zunehmende Anzahl an Herden im histologischen PrĂ€parat verglichen mit der Ausgangsbildgebung. Nur bei einem Patienten zeigte sich der Progress der Erkrankung bereits in der prĂ€operativen Bildgebung. Patienten mit einem Progress der Erkrankung hatten ein GesamtĂŒberleben von 60%, wĂ€hrend Patienten mit „stable disease“ oder RĂŒckgang der Herde ein GesamtĂŒberleben von 100% hatten (p=0,0180). Schlussfolgerung: Unseren Ergebnisse zufolge ist der Effekt der TACE als Bridgingverfahren auf das Überleben der Patienten fraglich. Allerdings scheint die TACE zur Riskostratifizierung geeignet zu sein. In unserem Patientenkollektiv hatten Patienten, die eine Progredienz der Erkrankung auf der Warteliste zeigten ein signifikant schlechteres GesamtĂŒberleben. Dies gilt auch bei ausschließlicher Betrachtung der Patienten mit TACE

    Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

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    We report the first successful modelocking of a vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) with a quantum dot (QD) gain region. The VECSEL has a total of 35 QD-layers with an emission wavelength of about 1060 nm. In SESAM modelocked operation, we obtain an average output power of 27.4 mW with 18-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 2.57 GHz. This QD-VECSEL is used as-grown on a 450 ÎŒm thick substrate, which limits the average output powe

    High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation

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    Ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators achieve the highest average output powers and pulse energies of any mode-locked laser oscillator technology. The thin disk concept avoids thermal problems occurring in conventional high-power rod or slab lasers and enables high-power TEM00 operation with broadband gain materials. Stable and self-starting passive pulse formation is achieved with semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs). The key components of ultrafast thin disk lasers, such as gain material, SESAM, and dispersive cavity mirrors, are all used in reflection. This is an advantage for the generation of ultrashort pulses with excellent temporal, spectral, and spatial properties because the pulses are not affected by large nonlinearities in the oscillator. Output powers close to 100W and pulse energies above 10ÎŒJ are directly obtained without any additional amplification, which makes these lasers interesting for a growing number of industrial and scientific applications such as material processing or driving experiments in high-field science. Ultrafast thin disk lasers are based on a power-scalable concept, and substantially higher power levels appear feasible. However, both the highest power levels and pulse energies are currently only achieved with Yb:YAG as the gain material, which limits the gain bandwidth and therefore the achievable pulse duration to 700 to 800fs in efficient thin disk operation. Other Yb-doped gain materials exhibit a larger gain bandwidth and support shorter pulse durations. It is important to evaluate their suitability for power scaling in the thin disk laser geometry. In this paper, we review the development of ultrafast thin disk lasers with shorter pulse durations. We discuss the requirements on the gain materials and compare different Yb-doped host materials. The recently developed sesquioxide materials are particularly promising as they enabled the highest optical-to-optical efficiency (43%) and shortest pulse duration (227fs) ever achieved with a mode-locked thin disk lase

    Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser

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    We present the first passively modelocked thin disk laser (TDL) with sub-100-fs pulse duration using the broadband sesquioxide gain material Yb:LuScO3 and an optimized SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror (SESAM). In this proof-of-principle experiment, we obtained 5.1W of average power at a repetition rate of 77.5MHz and a pulse duration of 96fs. We carefully explored and optimized the different parameters on the soliton pulse formation process for the generation of short pulses. In particular, SESAMs combining fast recovery time, high modulation depth and low nonsaturable losses proved crucial to achieve this result even though they are expected to only play a minor role in soliton modelocking. To our knowledge, these are the shortest pulses ever obtained with a modelocked TDL, reaching for the first time the sub-100-fs milestone. This result opens the door to sub-100-fs oscillators with substantially higher power levels in the near futur

    Physics at a 100 TeV pp collider: beyond the Standard Model phenomena

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    This report summarises the physics opportunities in the search and study of physics beyond the Standard Model at a 100 TeV pp collider.Comment: 196 pages, 114 figures. Chapter 3 of the "Physics at the FCC-hh" Repor