54,851 research outputs found

    On the Triality Theory for a Quartic Polynomial Optimization Problem

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    This paper presents a detailed proof of the triality theorem for a class of fourth-order polynomial optimization problems. The method is based on linear algebra but it solves an open problem on the double-min duality left in 2003. Results show that the triality theory holds strongly in a tri-duality form if the primal problem and its canonical dual have the same dimension; otherwise, both the canonical min-max duality and the double-max duality still hold strongly, but the double-min duality holds weakly in a symmetrical form. Four numerical examples are presented to illustrate that this theory can be used to identify not only the global minimum, but also the largest local minimum and local maximum.Comment: 16 pages, 1 figure; J. Industrial and Management Optimization, 2011. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1104.297

    Interacting cells driving the evolution of multicellular life cycles

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    Author summary Multicellular organisms are ubiquitous. But how did the first multicellular organisms arise? It is typically argued that this occurred due to benefits coming from interactions between cells. One example of such interactions is the division of labour. For instance, colonial cyanobacteria delegate photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation to different cells within the colony. In this way, the colony gains a growth advantage over unicellular cyanobacteria. However, not all cell interactions favour multicellular life. Cheater cells residing in a colony without any contribution will outgrow other cells. Then, the growing burden of cheaters may eventually destroy the colony. Here, we ask what kinds of interactions promote the evolution of multicellularity? We investigated all interactions captured by pairwise games and for each of them, we look for the evolutionarily optimal life cycle: How big should the colony grow and how should it split into offspring cells or colonies? We found that multicellularity can evolve with interactions far beyond cooperation or division of labour scenarios. More surprisingly, most of the life cycles found fall into either of two categories: A parent colony splits into two multicellular parts, or it splits into multiple independent cells

    Generic dark matter signature for gamma-ray telescopes

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    We describe a characteristic signature of dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay into gamma-rays. We show that if the total angular momentum of the initial DM particle(s) vanishes, and helicity suppression operates to prevent annihilation/decay into light fermion pairs, then the amplitude for the dominant 3-body final state f^+f^-\gamma has a unique form dictated by gauge invariance. This amplitude and the corresponding energy spectra hold for annihilation of DM Majorana fermions or self-conjugate scalars, and for decay of DM scalars, thus encompassing a variety of possibilities. Within this scenario, we analyze Fermi LAT, PAMELA and HESS data, and predict a hint in future Fermi gamma-ray data that portends a striking signal at atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs).Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures. Version to appear in PR

    Discovery of a new supernova remnant G150.3+4.5

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    Large-scale radio continuum surveys have good potential for discovering new Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Surveys of the Galactic plane are often limited in the Galactic latitude of |b| ~ 5 degree. SNRs at high latitudes, such as the Cygnus Loop or CTA~1, cannot be detected by surveys in such limited latitudes. Using the available Urumqi 6 cm Galactic plane survey data, together with the maps from the extended ongoing 6 cm medium latitude survey, we wish to discover new SNRs in a large sky area. We searched for shell-like structures and calculated radio spectra using the Urumqi 6 cm, Effelsberg 11 cm, and 21 cm survey data. Radio polarized emission and evidence in other wavelengths are also examined for the characteristics of SNRs. We discover an enclosed oval-shaped object G150.3+4.5 in the 6 cm survey map. It is about 2.5 degree wide and 3 degree high. Parts of the shell structures can be identified well in the 11 cm, 21 cm, and 73.5 cm observations. The Effelsberg 21 cm total intensity image resembles most of the structures of G150.3+4.5 seen at 6 cm, but the loop is not closed in the northwest. High resolution images at 21 cm and 73.5 cm from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey confirm the extended emission from the eastern and western shells of G150.3+4.5. We calculated the radio continuum spectral indices of the eastern and western shells, which are β2.4\beta \sim -2.4 and β2.7\beta \sim -2.7 between 6 cm and 21 cm, respectively. The shell-like structures and their non-thermal nature strongly suggest that G150.3+4.5 is a shell-type SNR. For other objects in the field of view, G151.4+3.0 and G151.2+2.6, we confirm that the shell-like structure G151.4+3.0 very likely has a SNR origin, while the circular-shaped G151.2+2.6 is an HII region with a flat radio spectrum, associated with optical filamentary structure, Hα\alpha, and infrared emission.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication of Astronomy and Astrophysic
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