115,307 research outputs found

    Quantum phase transition in a three-level atom-molecule system

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    We adopt a three-level bosonic model to investigate the quantum phase transition in an ultracold atom-molecule conversion system which includes one atomic mode and two molecular modes. Through thoroughly exploring the properties of energy level structure, fidelity, and adiabatical geometric phase, we confirm that the system exists a second-order phase transition from an atommolecule mixture phase to a pure molecule phase. We give the explicit expression of the critical point and obtain two scaling laws to characterize this transition. In particular we find that both the critical exponents and the behaviors of ground-state geometric phase change obviously in contrast to a similar two-level model. Our analytical calculations show that the ground-state geometric phase jumps from zero to ?pi/3 at the critical point. This discontinuous behavior has been checked by numerical simulations and it can be used to identify the phase transition in the system.Comment: 8 pages,8 figure

    Energy dependent kinetic freeze-out temperature and transverse flow velocity in high energy collisions

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    Transverse momentum spectra of negative and positive pions produced at mid-(pseudo)rapidity in inelastic or non-single-diffractive proton-proton collisions and in central nucleus-nucleus collisions over an energy range from a few GeV to above 10 TeV are analyzed by a (two-component) blast-wave model with Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics and with Tsallis statistics respectively. The model results are in similarly well agreement with the experimental data measured by a few productive collaborations who work at the Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and Large Hadron Collider (LHC), respectively. The energy dependent kinetic freeze-out temperature and transverse flow velocity are obtained and analyzed. Both the quantities have quick increase from the SIS to SPS, and slight increase or approximate invariability from the top RHIC to LHC. Around the energy bridge from the SPS to RHIC, the considered quantities in proton-proton collisions obtained by the blast-wave model with Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics show more complex energy dependent behavior comparing with the results in other three cases.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures. The European Physical Journal A, accepted. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1805.0334

    General correlation functions of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for arbitrarily high-dimensional systems

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    We generalize the correlation functions of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality to arbitrarily high-dimensional systems. Based on this generalization, we construct the general CHSH inequality for bipartite quantum systems of arbitrarily high dimensionality, which takes the same simple form as CHSH inequality for two-dimension. This inequality is optimal in the same sense as the CHSH inequality for two dimensional systems, namely, the maximal amount by which the inequality is violated consists with the maximal resistance to noise. We also discuss the physical meaning and general definition of the correlation functions. Furthermore, by giving another specific set of the correlation functions with the same physical meaning, we realize the inequality presented in [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 88,}040404 (2002)].Comment: 4 pages, accepted by Phys. Rev. Let

    Improved Extractors for Recognizable and Algebraic Sources

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    Gauge Field Optics with Anisotropic Media

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    By considering gauge transformations on the macroscopic Maxwell's equations, a two dimensional gauge field, with its pseudo magnetic field in the real space, is identified as tilted anisotropy in the constitutive parameters. We show that optical spin Hall effect and one-way edge states become possible simply by using anisotropic media with broadband response. The proposed gauge field also allows us to design an optical isolator based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Our approach will be useful in spoof magneto-optics with arbitrary magnetic fields mimicked by metamaterials with subwavelength unit cells. It also serves as a generic way to design polarization-dependent devices.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figure
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