50 research outputs found

    Reduced Seasonal Coronavirus Antibody Responses in Children Following COVID-19 Mitigation Measures, The Netherlands

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    SARS-CoV-2 prevention and control measures did not only impact SARS-CoV-2 circulation, but also the timing and prevalence of other seasonal respiratory viruses. Especially in children, information on exposure and infections to seasonal coronaviruses as well as SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic is largely lacking. Therefore, we set up a one-year serological survey in a large tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. We show that seasonal coronavirus seroprevalence significantly decreased in 2021 in children less than one year, most likely due to COVID-19 control measures. The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children and adolescents increased from 0.4% to 11.3%, the highest in adolescents. This implies higher exposure rates in adolescents as compared to the general population (>18 years old). It is clear that there have been significant changes in the circulation and subsequent immunity against most respiratory pathogens as a result of the mitigation measures. The implications on shorter as well as longer term are still largely unknown, but the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent control measures will continue to affect the dynamics of other pathogens

    Viral Kinetics and Resistance Development in Children Treated with Neuraminidase Inhibitors: The Influenza Resistance Information Study (IRIS)

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    BackgroundWe studied the effect of age, baseline viral load, vaccination status, antiviral therapy, and emergence of drug resistance on viral shedding in children infected with influenza A or B virus.MethodsSamples from children (aged ≤13 years) enrolled during the 7 years of the prospective Influenza Resistance Information Study were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to determine the influenza virus (sub-)type, viral load, and resistance mutations. Disease severity was assessed; clinical symptoms were recorded. The association of age with viral load and viral clearance was examined by determining the area under the curve for viral RNA shedding using logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses.ResultsA total of 2131 children infected with influenza (683, A/H1N1pdm09; 825, A/H3N2; 623, influenza B) were investigated. Age did not affect the mean baseline viral load. Children aged 1−5 years had prolonged viral RNA shedding (±1–2 days) compared with older children and up to 1.2-fold higher total viral burden. Besides, in older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.12), prior vaccination status (OR, 1.72; CI, 1.22–2.43) and antiviral treatment (OR, 1.74; CI, 1.43–2.12) increased the rate of viral clearance. Resistance mutations were detected in 49 children infected with influenza A virus (34, A/H1N1pdm09; 15, A/H3N2) treated with oseltamivir, most of whom were aged [under]5 years (n = 39).ConclusionsChildren aged 1−5 years had a higher total viral burden with prolonged virus shedding and had an increased risk of acquiring resistance mutations following antiviral treatment.Clinical Trials RegistrationNCT00884117

    Risk factors for intensive care admission in children with severe acute asthma in the Netherlands:a prospective multicentre study

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    Rationale: Severe acute asthma (SAA) can be fatal, but is often preventable. We previously observed in a retrospective cohort study, a three-fold increase in SAA paediatric intensive care (PICU) admissions between 2003 and 2013 in the Netherlands, with a significant increase during those years of numbers of children without treatment of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Objectives: To determine whether steroid-naïve children are at higher risk of PICU admission among those hospitalised for SAA. Furthermore, we included the secondary risk factors tobacco smoke exposure, allergic sensitisation, previous admissions and viral infections. Methods: A prospective, nationwide multicentre study of children with SAA (2-18 years) admitted to all Dutch PICUs and four general wards between 2016 and 2018. Potential risk factors for PICU admission were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Measurements and main results: 110 PICU and 111 general ward patients were included. The proportion of steroid-naïve children did not differ significantly between PICU and ward patients. PICU children were significantly older and more exposed to tobacco smoke, with symptoms >1 week prior to admission. Viral susceptibility was not a significant risk factor for PICU admission. Conclusions: Children with SAA admitted to a PICU were comparable to those admitted to a general ward with respect to ICS treatment prior to admission. Preventable risk factors for PICU admission were >7 days of symptoms without adjustment of therapy and exposure to tobacco smoke. Physicians who treat children with asthma must be aware of these risk factors

    SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in secondary school settings in the Netherlands during fall 2020: silent circulation

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    BACKGROUND: In fall 2020 when schools in the Netherlands operated under a limited set of COVID-19 measures, we conducted outbreaks studies in four secondary schools to gain insight in the level of school transmission and the role of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via air and surfaces. METHODS: Outbreak studies were performed between 11 November and 15 December 2020 when the wild-type variant of SARS-CoV-2 was dominant. Clusters of SARS-CoV-2 infections within schools were identified through a prospective school surveillance study. All school contacts of cluster cases, irrespective of symptoms, were invited for PCR testing twice within 48 h and 4-7 days later. Combined NTS and saliva samples were collected at each time point along with data on recent exposure and symptoms. Surface and active air samples were collected in the school environment. All samples were PCR-tested and sequenced when possible. RESULTS: Out of 263 sampled school contacts, 24 tested SARS-CoV-2 positive (secondary attack rate 9.1%), of which 62% remained asymptomatic and 42% had a weakly positive test result. Phylogenetic analysis on 12 subjects from 2 schools indicated a cluster of 8 and 2 secondary cases, respectively, but also other distinct strains within outbreaks. Of 51 collected air and 53 surface samples, none were SARS-CoV-2 positive. CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed within school SARS-CoV-2 transmission and substantial silent circulation, but also multiple introductions in some cases. Absence of air or surface contamination suggests environmental contamination is not widespread during school outbreaks

    Priority Needs for Conducting Pandemic-Relevant Clinical Research With Children in Europe : A Consensus Study With Pediatric Clinician-Researchers

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    Background: Infectious disease pandemics (IDP) pose a considerable global threat and can disproportionately affect vulnerable populations including children. Pediatric clinical research in pandemics is essential to improve children’s healthcare and minimize risks of harm by interventions that lack an adequate evidence base for this population. The unique features of IDPs require consideration of special processes to facilitate clinical research. We aimed to obtain consensus on pediatric clinician-researchers’ perceptions of the priorities to feasibly conduct clinical pediatric pandemic research in Europe.Methods: Mixed method study in 2 stages, recruiting pediatric clinician-researchers with experience of conducting pediatric infectious disease (ID) research in clinical settings in Europe. Stage one was an expert stakeholder workshop and interviews. Discussions focused on participant’s experience of conducting pediatric ID research and processes to facilitate pandemic research. Information informed stage two; an on-line consensus survey to identify pediatric clinician-researchers priorities to enable IDP research.Results: Twenty-three pediatric clinician-researchers attended the workshop and thirty-nine completed the survey. Priorities were primarily focused on structural and operational requirements of research design and regulation: 1) Clarity within the European Clinical Trials Directive for pediatric pandemic research; 2) Simplified regulatory processes for research involving clinical samples and data; and 3) Improved relationships between regulatory bodies and researchers.Conclusions: Results suggest that changes need to be made to the current regulatory environment to facilitate and improve pediatric research in the pandemic context. These findings can provide expert evidence to research policy decision makers and regulators and to develop a strategy to lobby for change.</p

    The role of B cells in carriage and clearance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the respiratory tract of mice

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    Background: Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) in the nasopharynx is considered a prerequisite for pulmonary infection. It is interesting to note that Mp carriage is also detected after infection. Although B cells are known to be involved in pulmonary Mp clearance, their role in Mp carriage is unknown. Methods: In this study, we show in a mouse model that Mp persists in the nose after pulmonary infection, similar to humans. Results: Infection of mice enhanced Mp-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, nasal washes only contained elevated Mp-specific IgA. These differences in Ig compartmentalization correlated with differences in Mp-specific B cell responses between nose- and lung-draining lymphoid tissues. Moreover, transferred Mp-specific serum Igs had no effect on nasal carriage in B cell-deficient μMT mice, whereas this enabled μMT mice to clear pulmonary Mp infection. Conclusions: We report the first evidence that humoral immunity is limited in clearing Mp from the upper respiratory tract

    Effects of emotion on prospection during decision-making

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    In two experiments we examined the role of emotion, specifically worry, anxiety, and mood, on prospection during decision-making. Worry is a particularly relevant emotion to study in the context of prospection because high levels of worry may make individuals more aversive toward the uncertainty associated with the prospect of obtaining future improvements in rewards or states. Thus, high levels of worry might lead to reduced prospection during decision-making and enhance preference for immediate over delayed rewards. In Experiment 1 participants performed a two-choice dynamic decision-making task where they were required to choose between one option (the decreasing option) which provided larger immediate rewards but declines in future states, and another option (the increasing option) which provided smaller immediate rewards but improvements in future states, making it the optimal choice. High levels of worry were associated with poorer performance in the task. Additionally, fits of a sophisticated reinforcement-learning model that incorporated both reward-based and state-based information suggested that individuals reporting high levels of worry gave greater weight to the immediate rewards they would receive on each trial than to the degree to which each action would lead to improvements in their future state. In Experiment 2 we found that high levels of worry were associated with greater delay discounting using a standard delay discounting task. Combined, the results suggest that high levels of worry are associated with reduced prospection during decision-making. We attribute these results to high worriers' aversion toward the greater uncertainty associated with attempting to improve future rewards than to maximize immediate reward. These results have implications for researchers interested in the effects of emotion on cognition, and suggest that emotion strongly affects the focus on temporal outcomes during decision-making.The open access fee for this work was funded through the Texas A&M University Open Access to Knowledge (OAK) Fund

    Human Astrovirus Infection in a Patient with New-Onset Celiac Disease▿

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    Many diseases with unknown etiology may be caused by unidentified viruses. Sequence-independent amplification revealed a new astrovirus, similar to VA1, in a 4-year-old male diagnosed with celiac disease. This expands the geographic range of this virus to include Europe and may associate astrovirus infection with the onset of celiac disease

    'Acute respiratory distress syndrome' (ARDS) als ernstige complicatie van influenza

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    'Acute respiratory distress syndrome' (ARDS) developed as a serious complication of an infection with the influenza virus A (H1N1) ('swine flu') in 3 children: a 15-year-old girl, a 6-year-old boy and a 14-year-old girl. The latter two patients also suffered from septic shock. Intensive ICU treatment, including mechanical ventilation, did not lead to recovery. The first two patients eventually recovered following treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), but the third patient's condition was too unstable for transfer to an ECMO centre. This patient died
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