27 research outputs found

    Heterogeneous Federated Learning: State-of-the-art and Research Challenges

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    Federated learning (FL) has drawn increasing attention owing to its potential use in large-scale industrial applications. Existing federated learning works mainly focus on model homogeneous settings. However, practical federated learning typically faces the heterogeneity of data distributions, model architectures, network environments, and hardware devices among participant clients. Heterogeneous Federated Learning (HFL) is much more challenging, and corresponding solutions are diverse and complex. Therefore, a systematic survey on this topic about the research challenges and state-of-the-art is essential. In this survey, we firstly summarize the various research challenges in HFL from five aspects: statistical heterogeneity, model heterogeneity, communication heterogeneity, device heterogeneity, and additional challenges. In addition, recent advances in HFL are reviewed and a new taxonomy of existing HFL methods is proposed with an in-depth analysis of their pros and cons. We classify existing methods from three different levels according to the HFL procedure: data-level, model-level, and server-level. Finally, several critical and promising future research directions in HFL are discussed, which may facilitate further developments in this field. A periodically updated collection on HFL is available at https://github.com/marswhu/HFL_Survey.Comment: 42 pages, 11 figures, and 4 table

    Overexpression of Class III β-tubulin, Sox2, and nuclear Survivin is predictive of taxane resistance in patients with stage III ovarian epithelial cancer

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    Failed root canal treatment is best addressed primarily with the provision of repeat endodontic treatment with thorough irrigation under isolation. If a post is present in the root of the tooth it needs to be removed first. This paper is the second in a series of two which provide an overview of techniques for post removal. Specifically designed post removal devices and the removal of fibre posts are described. Post removal device techniques are illustrated with a series of clinical case figures

    First-principles study of cadmium vacancy in CdWO4 crystal

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    The structural relaxation, electronic structures and optical properties of CdWO crystal containing cadmium vacancy (CWO:V) are studied by the CASTEP code. The cadmium vacancy (V) would trap two holes to maintain the local electrical neutrality. The calculated structural relaxation and electronic density of states reveals that the existent form of the hole in CWO:V should be oxygen molecular ion (O). Therefore an associated color center [O-V-O] named as V center would form in the crystal. The calculated optical absorption spectrum for CWO:V indicates that this V center would cause an absorption band peaking at about 650 nm with a shoulder at around 400 nm, which is in agreement with the experimental optical absorptions of the blue-grey colored CWO crystal

    First principle studies on the electronic structures and absorption spectra in KMgF3 crystal with fluorine vacancy

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    The experiments indicate that the perfect KMgF3 crystal has no absorption in the visible range, however the electron irradiation induces a complex absorption spectrum. The absorption spectra can be decomposed by five Gaussian bands peaking at 2.5 eV (488 nm), 3.4 eV (359 nm), 4.2 eV (295 nm), 4.6 eV (270 nm) and 5.2 eV (239 nm), respectively. The purpose of this paper is to seek the origins of the absorption bands. The electronic structures and absorption spectra either for the perfect KMgF3 or for KMgF 3: VF+ with electrical neutrality have been studied by using density functional theory code CASTEP with the lattice structure optimized. The calculation results predicate that KMgF3: VF+ also exhibits five absorption bands caused by the existence of the fluorine ion vacancy VF+ and the five absorption bands well coincide with the experimental results. It is believable that the five absorption bands are related to VF+ in KMgF3 crystal produced by the electron irradiation

    An Immunosuppressant Peptide from the Hard Tick Amblyomma variegatum

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    Ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1–2 weeks to obtain blood meals. Thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts’ immune system. In the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of HLHMHGNGATQVFKPRLVLKCPNAAQLIQPGKLQRQLLLQ. A cDNA of the precursor peptide was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, USA). In rat splenocytes, amregulin exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors in vitro, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In rat splenocytes, treated with amregulin, compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone, the inhibition of the above inflammatory factors was significant at all tested concentrations (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL). Amregulin shows strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) in vitro. Amregulin also significantly inhibits adjuvant-induced paw inflammation in mouse models in vivo. This peptide may facilitate the ticks’ successful blood feeding and may lead to host immunotolerance of the tick. These findings have important implications for the understanding of tick-host interactions and the co-evolution between ticks and the viruses that they bear