40,178 research outputs found

    Effects of Transit Signal Priority on Traffic Safety: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Portland, Oregon, Implementations

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    Transit signal priority (TSP) has been implemented to transit systems in many cities of the United States. In evaluating TSP systems, more attention has been given to its operational effects than to its safety effects. Existing studies assessing safety effects of TSP reported mixed results, indicating that the safety effects of TSP vary in different contexts. In this study, TSP implementations in Portland, Oregon, were assessed using interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) on month-to-month changes in number of crashes from January 1995 to December 2010. Single-group and controlled ITSA were conducted for all crashes, property-damage-only crashes, fatal and injury crashes, pedestrian-involved crashes, and bike-involved crashes. Evaluation of the post-intervention period (2003 to 2010) showed a reduction in all crashes on street sections with TSP (-4.5 percent), comparing with the counterfactual estimations based on the control group data. The reduction in property-damage-only crashes (-10.0 percent) contributed the most to the overall reduction. Fatal and injury crashes leveled out after TSP implementation but did not change significantly comparing with the control group. Pedestrian and bike-involved crashes were found to increase in the post-intervention period with TSP, comparing with the control group. Potential reasons to these TSP effects on traffic safety were discussed.Comment: Published in Accident Analysis & Preventio

    An evaluation of Bag Books multi-sensory stories

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    Layout Decomposition for Quadruple Patterning Lithography and Beyond

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    For next-generation technology nodes, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) has emerged as a key solution, e.g., triple patterning lithography (TPL) for 14/11nm, and quadruple patterning lithography (QPL) for sub-10nm. In this paper, we propose a generic and robust layout decomposition framework for QPL, which can be further extended to handle any general K-patterning lithography (K>>4). Our framework is based on the semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation with novel coloring encoding. Meanwhile, we propose fast yet effective coloring assignment and achieve significant speedup. To our best knowledge, this is the first work on the general multiple patterning lithography layout decomposition.Comment: DAC'201

    Dynamic allosteric control of noncovalent DNA catalysis reactions

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    Allosteric modulation of catalysis kinetics is prevalent in proteins and has been rationally designed for ribozymes. Here, we present an allosteric DNA molecule that, in its active configuration, catalyzes a noncovalent DNA reaction. The catalytic activity is designed to be modulated by the relative concentrations of two DNA regulator molecules, one an inhibitor and the other an activator. Dynamic control of the catalysis rate is experimentally demonstrated via three cycles of up and down regulation by a factor of over 10. Unlike previous works, both the allosteric receptor and catalytic core are designed, rather than evolved. This allows flexibility in the sequence design and modularity in synthetic network construction
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