3,169 research outputs found

    Low energy bounds on Poincare violation in causal set theory

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    In the causal set approach to quantum gravity, Poincar\'{e} symmetry is modified by swerving in spacetime, induced by the random lattice discretization of the space-time structure. The broken translational symmetry at short distances is argued to lead to a residual diffusion in momentum space, whereby a particle can acquire energy and momentum by drift along its mass shell and a system in equilibrium can spontaneously heat up. We consider bounds on the rate of momentum space diffusion coming from astrophysical molecular clouds, nuclear stability and cosmological neutrino background. We find that the strongest limits come from relic neutrinos, which we estimate to constrain the momentum space diffusion constant by k<10‚ąí61GeV3k < 10^{-61} {\rm GeV}^3 for neutrinos with masses mőĹ>0.01eVm_\nu > 0.01 {\rm eV}, improving the previously quoted bounds by roughly 17 orders of magnitude.Comment: Additional discussion about behavior of alpha particles in nuclei added. Version matches that accepted in PR

    Causal sets and conservation laws in tests of Lorentz symmetry

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    Many of the most important astrophysical tests of Lorentz symmetry also assume that energy-momentum of the observed particles is exactly conserved. In the causal set approach to quantum gravity a particular kind of Lorentz symmetry holds but energy-momentum conservation may be violated. We show that incorrectly assuming exact conservation can give rise to a spurious signal of Lorentz symmetry violation for a causal set. However, the size of this spurious signal is much smaller than can be currently detected and hence astrophysical Lorentz symmetry tests as currently performed are safe from causal set induced violations of energy-momentum conservation.Comment: 8 pages, matches version published in PR

    Einstein-Aether Waves

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    Local Lorentz invariance violation can be realized by introducing extra tensor fields in the action that couple to matter. If the Lorentz violation is rotationally invariant in some frame, then it is characterized by an ``aether'', i.e. a unit timelike vector field. General covariance requires that the aether field be dynamical. In this paper we study the linearized theory of such an aether coupled to gravity and find the speeds and polarizations of all the wave modes in terms of the four constants appearing in the most general action at second order in derivatives. We find that in addition to the usual two transverse traceless metric modes, there are three coupled aether-metric modes.Comment: 5 pages; v2: Remarks added concerning gauge invariance of the waves and hyperbolicity of the equations. Essentially the version published in PR

    Renormalization of Scalar and Yukawa Field Theories with Lorentz Violation

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    We consider a theory of scalar and spinor fields, interacting through Yukawa and phi^4 interactions, with Lorentz-violating operators included in the Lagrangian. We compute the leading quantum corrections in this theory. The renormalizability of the theory is explicitly shown up to one-loop order. In the pure scalar sector, the calculations can be generalized to higher orders and to include finite terms, because the theory can be solved in terms of its Lorentz-invariant version.Comment: 30 page

    Threshold effects and Planck scale Lorentz violation: combined constraints from high energy astrophysics

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    Recent work has shown that dispersion relations with Planck scale Lorentz violation can produce observable effects at energies many orders of magnitude below the Planck energy M. This opens a window on physics that may reveal quantum gravity phenomena. It has already constrained the possibility of Planck scale Lorentz violation, which is suggested by some approaches to quantum gravity. In this work we carry out a systematic analysis of reaction thresholds, allowing unequal deformation parameters for different particle dispersion relations. The thresholds are found to have some unusual properties compared with standard ones, such as asymmetric momenta for pair creation and upper thresholds. The results are used together with high energy observational data to determine combined constraints. We focus on the case of photons and electrons, using vacuum Cerenkov, photon decay, and photon annihilation processes to determine order unity constraints on the parameters controlling O(E/M) Lorentz violation. Interesting constraints for protons (with photons or pions) are obtained even at O((E/M)^2), using the absence of vacuum Cerenkov and the observed GZK cutoff for ultra high energy cosmic rays. A strong Cerenkov limit using atmospheric PeV neutrinos is possible for O(E/M) deformations provided the rate is high enough. If detected, ultra high energy cosmological neutrinos might yield limits at or even beyond O((E/M)^2).Comment: 35 pages, 13 Figures, RevTex4. Version published in PRD. Expanded introduction, updated discussion of possible constraint if GZK cutoff is confirmed. Corrected typos. Added and updated reference

    High energy constraints on Lorentz symmetry violations

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    Lorentz violation at high energies might lead to non linear dispersion relations for the fundamental particles. We analyze observational constraints on these without assuming any a priori equality between the coefficients determining the amount of Lorentz violation for different particle species. We focus on constraints from three high energy processes involving photons and electrons: photon decay, photo-production of electron-positron pairs, and vacuum Cerenkov radiation. We find that cubic momentum terms in the dispersion relations are strongly constrained.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure, Talk presented at CPT01; the Second Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, Bloomington, Indiana, 15-18 Aug. 2001. Minor numerical error corrected, gamma-decay constraint update

    Bounds on Spin-Dependent Lorentz Violation From Inverse Compton Observations

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    Some of the best bounds on possible Lorentz violation in the electron sector come from observations of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. Using measurements of TeV inverse Compton radiation from a number of sources, we place the first bounds--at the 10^(-15) level--on seven of the electron d coefficients.Comment: 10 page

    Radiatively Induced Lorentz and Gauge Symmetry Violation in Electrodynamics with Varying alpha

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    A time-varying fine structure constant alpha(t) could give rise to Lorentz- and CPT-violating changes to the vacuum polarization, which would affect photon propagation. Such changes to the effective action can violate gauge invariance, but they are otherwise permitted. However, in the minimal theory of varying alpha, no such terms are generated at lowest order. At second order, vacuum polarization can generate an instability--a Lorentz-violating analogue of a negative photon mass squared -m^2 proportional to alpha [(d alpha/dt) / alpha]^2 log (Lambda^2), where Lambda is the cutoff for the low-energy effective theory.Comment: 14 page

    On calculation of cross sections in Lorentz violating theories

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    We develop a systematic approach to the calculation of scattering cross sections in theories with violation of the Lorentz invariance taking into account the whole information about the theory Lagrangian. As an illustration we derive the Feynman rules and formulas for sums over polarizations in spinor electrodynamics with Lorentz violating operators of dimensions four and six. These rules are applied to compute the probabilities of several astrophysically relevant processes. We calculate the rates of photon decay and vacuum Cherenkov radiation along with the cross sections of electron-positron pair production on background radiation and in the Coulomb field. The latter process is essential for detection of photon-induced air showers in the atmosphere.Comment: 23 pages, 1 figur
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