Scholar Commons - Institutional Repository of the University of South Carolina

    The Fundamental Right to Education

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    New litigation has revived one of the most important questions of constitutional law: is education a fundamental right? The Court’s previous answers have been disappointing. While the Court has hinted that it might recognize some minimal right to education, it has thus far refused to do so. To recognize a fundamental right to education, the Court would have to overcome two basic problems. First, the Court needs an originalist theory for why our constitution protects education, particularly since the word education does not even appear in the constitution. Second, the right to education implicates complex questions regarding its scope. Neither litigants nor scholars have seriously grappled with these problems, which explains why the Court has yet to recognize a right to education. This Article demonstrates that the right falls squarely within the Court’s existing precedent. It traces the fundamental importance of education from the nation’s founding principles through the years immediately following the Fourteenth Amendment. It examines historical facts and constitutional developments that have quite simply been overlooked. This Article also defines the scope of a right to education with historical evidence. It demonstrates that the original purpose of public education was to prepare citizens to participate actively in self-government. In the mid-nineteenth century, this required an education that prepares citizens to comprehend, evaluate, and act thoughtfully on the functions and policies of government

    Submission Information

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    Parenting Interventions For Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

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    Children exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at risk for enduring mental health problems that are similar to the sequelae of child maltreatment. Victimized parents also are at risk for significant mental health problems that can impair parenting. The co-occurrence of child maltreatment and IPV is significant. Robust research supports parenting programs in preventing and ameliorating the effects of child maltreatment. This evidence-based practice project aims to answer the question \u27What is the evidence supporting a particular parenting program for children exposed to IPV and the resulting child mental health outcomes?\u27 The evidence does support the use of parenting programs for IPV-exposed children exhibiting clinical levels of emotional or behavioral problems. The culmination of this project is the creation of six recommendations for clinical practice based on the quality of the available evidence. The interventions with the highest level evidence are identified and incorporated into the overall recommendations for clinical practice. Intervention themes that emerged during the analysis are incorporated into the evidence-based recommendations. Areas for further research, implications for clinical practice and implications for nursing education are discussed

    Incidence and Factors For Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Ben): A Follow-Up Study

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    Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic kidney disease that progresses slowly affecting only persons residing in Balkan countries, Europe. Despite the unique geographical specificity of this disease, genetic and environment factors have been reported as risk factors for BEN but its etiology remained unclear. Although some studies have used parental history of BEN as diagnostic criterion for BEN, it is not known how the disease develops in affected offspring. In addition, there are no known clinical markers capable to identify an early disease development. Therefore, the first aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between parental history of BEN and clinical markers such as kidney length and cortex width, creatinine clearance, and &brkbar;Â2-microglobulin as predictors of new occurrences of BEN. Second, we tested whether these clinical markers were intervening variables between parental history of BEN and the incidence of BEN in offspring. The third aim was to investigate the relationships between hypertension and the incidence of BEN. Methods: Of 219 total participants, 122 were offspring of BEN with a parental history of BEN and 97 were offspring without a parental history of BEN, frequency- matched by age and gender. We conducted a five year prospective study, using the parental status and clinical markers in years 1 and 3 to predict new cases of BEN in year 5. Questionnaire data, clinical markers, and physical examination were collected five times between 2003 and 2009. New cases of BEN were defined based on three criteria: parental history, reduced kidney size, and reduced kidney function. Incident cases were divided into (1) probable BEN, (2) definite BEN, and (3) both combined as total incidence of BEN. A parental history of BEN was either classified as ¡°yes/no¡± or as a specific status of parental BEN: maternal, paternal, biparental and non-BEN. Two methods were used to analyze the data, Cox regression models and path analysis, both controlling for age and gender. Results: Approximately 80% of the participants remained in study until the last year of follow up. The incidence of BEN was 17.4% in both offspring groups combined. The results of the survival analyses demonstrated that paternal history of BEN was associated with all three incidence groups (hazard ratio: 33 to 86, P \u3c0.05). A kidney cortex width reduction of 1 millimeter increased the incidence of definite BEN by 23 %; a reduction of kidney length of 1 millimeter resulted in a 5% increase of hazard ratio of probable BEN. However, after parental history of BEN was taken into account, the associations of the clinical markers lost their significance. Findings of the path analyses suggested that a parental history of BEN had both direct and indirect effects on the occurrence of BEN. Participants with a parental history of BEN had a 57 times higher odds ratio for onset of BEN than those without a parental history. Similar findings were found for biparental, paternal, and maternal history of BEN. Several intervening variables between the parental status and onset of BEN were identified. A maternal history of BEN acted through kidney length and creatinine clearance. Biparental BEN was mediated by 1) creatinine clearance and 2) kidney length and creatinine clearance. Paternal history of BEN had three indirect effects; 1) through kidney length and creatinine clearance, 2) through kidney cortex width and creatinine clearance, and 3) through kidney cortex width alone. Finally, we found that systolic blood pressure was indirectly related to the occurrence of BEN through a reduction of kidney cortex width and a decline of creatinine clearance. Systolic blood pressure ¡Ý140 mmHg without treatment affected the incidence of BEN through decreased kidney cortex width alone or decreased kidney cortex width with decreased creatinine clearance. With treatment, systolic blood pressure ¡Ý140 mmHg or ¡Ü140 mmHg groups were not associated with new cases of BEN. Conclusions: A parental history of BEN is more important than any clinical markers for predicting the incidence of BEN. However, without a parental history of BEN, a diminished kidney cortex width predicted definite BEN. A positive family history of BEN also led to reduced kidney length and cortex width, and a decline in creatinine clearance, which in turn was related to the onset of BEN. High blood pressure without treatment was indirectly associated with the new cases of BEN through kidney cortex width and creatinine clearance. It seems that creatinine clearance is an important intervening variable in the relationship between the new cases of BEN and a parental history of BEN as well as kidney size, and high untreated blood pressure. Our results have the following implications. First, a family predisposition for BEN might be an important component in the development of the disease. Second, it is important to early diagnose and treat hypertension in the high risk group of BEN offspring. Third, BEN offspring should be educated about their family predisposition. Fourth, it is important to educate the high risk group to minimize other risk factors that may contribute to a reduction of creatinine clearance such as smoking and obesity. Finally, more studies need to explore the pathogenesis of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Behavioral and Physiological Responses of the Salt Marsh Snail, Littoraria Irrorata, to Thermal and Desiccation Stresses

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    Mechanistically determining an organism\u27s physiological climate space, and its capacity to function within this space, is essential for predicting how populations will persist in novel environments. The goal of my thesis was to clarify how the salt marsh snail Littoraria irrorata experiences microclimate conditions within the canopy of Spartina alterniflora and to assess the role these conditions play in controlling its behaviors. I combined laboratory experiments with field observations to test the snails\u27 physiological tolerances to thermal and desiccation stresses and to relate this to microclimate conditions in the high and low marsh of South Carolina. I also assembled a heat budget model to predict L. irrorata\u27s ability to be active depending on its height in the S. alterniflora canopy and the timing of tidal emergence. In addition, I calculated total monthly activity times for May-September, 2005-2010. I found that the snails primarily responded to desiccation stress and therefore spent midday glued to stalks with mucus holdfasts at low heights in the canopy (~5cm in the high marsh), where desiccation stress was lowest. Much higher levels of thermal and desiccation stresses were observed in the high marsh than in the low marsh, particularly during a neap tide, when the high marsh site was emerged for several days. Marsh emergence periods began most frequently in the high marsh from 0:00-8:00, when calculated snail activity times were also highest. Furthermore, snail activity times were most constrained in July, and then increased into the Fall. The thermal and desiccation constraints on L. irrorata\u27s ability to maintain activity corresponded with the behavioral patterns described in studies of its life history traits. The overall results of my thesis indicate that microclimate conditions in the salt marsh help to explain many characteristics of L. irrorata\u27s behaviors and are likely to play a large role in its population dynamics

    Metamorphose

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    This work follows the changes in the cultural identity of the Inca princess Zilia in Françoise de Graffigny\u27s epistolary novel Lettres d\u27une péruvienne. It targets the social, as well as the individual aspects of this metamorphosis, offering alternatives for interpretation. Special attention is given to the role played by language as well as by cultural perspectives and products. The individual dimension analyzed includes her relationship with the French chevalier Déterville and her dependence on Aza, the Inca prince. The conclusion this work proposes is the idea that change is inevitable when somebody is faced with a new social environment and a different language

    Predicting Student-Athlete Academic Success With Preadmission, Social-Contextual, and Sport Variables

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    Universities are required by the NCAA to ensure student-athletes make progress towards earning a degree. In 2004, The NCAA created the Academic Progress Rate (APR) metric to assess if universities were facilitating academic success for student-athletes. Athletic programs that fail to meet an APR score of 925 receive a variety of penalties. These penalties not only hurt the athletic program but also tarnish an institution\u27s image. Predicting which student-athletes are at-risk can provide an opportunity for athletic programs to change procedures to reduce risk. Although the NCAA provides information about APR risk, results are calculated based on aggregated data across a variety of institutions ranging from regional colleges to elite private universities. The risk factors provided by the NCAA may not accurately reflect risk within a specific institution. The present study assessed risk factors related to losing APR points for student-athletes attending a Division I institution in a BCS conference. Archival data were collected from the institution and the NCAA for 829 student-athletes receiving athletic scholarships between 2003-2009 school years. Predictor variables included high school GPA, SAT scores, conditions of admission, SES, race/ethnicity, sex, playing time, red shirting, distance from home, and sport risk. Results of the analysis indicate that male and female student-athletes have different risk factors and should be analyzed separately. There is an interesting relationship between high school GPA and SAT scores for minority student-athletes. Finally, a combination of preadmission, social-contextual, and sport variables were associated with student-athletes at-risk for losing APR points

    A Versatile and Computationally Efficient Condition Indicator for AH-64 Rotorcraft Gearboxes

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    The CBM research at University of South Carolina is targeted at achieving some of the CBM objectives for rotorcrafts in collaboration with South Carolina Army National Guard. The current research study is motivated by the endeavor to enhance condition monitoring objectives by evaluating the condition indicators (CI) that have been implemented currently on the aircraft in operation. For the purpose of this research three tail rotor gearbox have been tested to simulate severe lubricant starved conditions. The three test articles have failed in three different modes. The TGB article-1 had severe damage of the input gear teeth. For the second TGB article the testing was terminated when an input gear tooth broke. The third TGB article did not suffer significant damage to its gear teeth, but the testing was aborted due to an increase in temperature. For all the three articles, a significant increase in gear mesh second harmonics was observed but the condition indicators have not been successful in providing a warning well in advance. The only condition indicator that has triggered caution alarm was TGB lateral bearing energy CI. From the evaluation of condition indicators it is found that only the DA1 CI has shown a very sharp increase in its value. The FM0 and FM4 CI have also shown noticeable fluctuations but the variation was not severe to create any alarm. This suggests that if the existing CIs do not perform up to the expectations then an alternate CI that is either better in anticipating failure or produce similar results with relatively lower computational expense is beneficial. In the current research, a new condition indicator that is relatively simpler compared to the FM4, ER, SLF, SI condition indicators and has the ability to offset some of the limitations of Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is proposed. The proposed CI is defined as Asynchronous to Synchronous Energy ratio in Time domain (ASET). As the name suggests, the ASET for a component rotating at a particular speed is obtained by dividing the total energy in the raw time domain signal with the energy in the time synchronous averaged signal of the component with synchronous frequency equal to the component\u27s frequency. The ASET CI has ability to identify modulation of synchronous frequencies, and change in gear mesh amplitudes. Since, the ASET CI does not involve any information about the spectrum of the signal, the need for DFT is eliminated which reduces computational burden as well as provides hope to detect the signals with both transient and periodic signal content. The proposed CI has been analyzed with the vibration data for the TGB article-2, TGB article-3 and the IGB article that was installed during the testing of TGB article-2 and TGB article-3. The plots obtained after computation of ASET for the test articles showed variation as hypothesized. Furthermore, ASET indicated existence of a functional relationship between FM0 and FM4 CIs. This thesis presents the results of the experiment, evaluation of the existing CIs, the definition of the new CI and its behavior when fed with the data from the experiments conducted on test articles. The ASET CI can be a supplementary diagnostic algorithm that provides information about sidebands, gear mesh amplitudes from just the time-domain data. The proposed CI reacts to multiple failure modes with lower computational burden unlike some of the currently implemented CIs and hence has potential to substitute some of the existing CIs

    Microbial Antibiotic Resistance and Integron Gene Distribution Within An Urbanized Coastal Estuarine Ecosystem

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    The impact of antibiotics in the environment constitutes a topic of great concern and research has been conducted throughout the years to determine how these compounds affect public health. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is not a novel phenomenon, however since the mass production of antibiotics in the 1940s, the increased number of bacterial species showing resistance to one or multiple antibiotics reflects the accelerating rate of this process over the years. Furthermore, this phenomenon has led to the reduction of antibiotic efficiency by requiring higher doses to control a disease, and in other cases to restrain the use of certain antibiotics for clinical applications. Two factors that have contributed to the increased rate of antibiotic resistance over the years are the increased overall global population, and the production/use of antibiotics for clinical and agricultural purposes. Among the continuously increasing population, it has been estimated that more than 40% of the world population lives within 100 km of coastlines. According to the United Nations, in the next decade, population will increase by 14% in these areas. With the increase in the population density, there has been an increase in the use and production of pharmaceuticals. Worldwide, the annual production of antibiotics is estimated to be between 150 to 200 million kg, where 60% is used for clinical purposes and the remaining amount employed for agricultural activities. This trend places a higher pressure on coastal ecosystems in terms of increased wastewater contaminants from runoff and industrial, medical and domestic facilities. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) receive pharmaceutical residues and bacteria from hospitals, small industries and households. Due to the high level of bacterial activity occurring in WWTPs these facilities may support the generation and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes or dissemination elements that may be subsequently released to aquatic ecosystems, transferring resistance to pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. This represents a possible risk for aquatic animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to characterize microbial antibiotic resistance and integrase gene distribution throughout a wastewater treatment facility and a heavily populated coastal estuarine ecosystem using culture independent methodologies to determine their ultimate fate in the environment. Results indicated the presence of a highly resistance gene blaM-1 conferring resistance to ampicillin (MIC: 384-448 ppm), and three classes of integrase genes potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. The WWTP examined in this study discharges an average of 136 million L day-1 of treated wastewater, which represents approximately 3.9 x 10^14 GCN of blaM-1, and 2.4 x 10^13, 2.7 x 10^13, and 1.0 x 10^14 GCNs of IntI1, IntI2, and IntI3, respectively released every day into the surrounding ecosystem. Different geographical patterns of distribution were observed for blaM-1 and IntI genes in environmental samples. Results generated from this research may be used to provide a better knowledge of how an urban landscape might be affecting the evolution of surrounding microbial communities. Furthermore, this study examines the potential of WWTPs to act as environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant traits that are subsequently disseminated into surrounding environments

    A Standpoint for Critique: The Metaphorical Status of Critique in Kant\u27s \u27Critique of Pure Reason\u27

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    I argue that critique is an epistemologically significant Kantian metaphor for transcendental self-consciousness. This claim is complex, involving two antecedent propositions: (1) there is a Kantian theory of metaphor; (2) critique is such a metaphor. In Chapter 1, I argue that theorizing about metaphor is too diverse to allow for anything but the arbitrary adoption of a single theory that can be applied to critique. Were I to make such a move, I could then arguably misrepresent Kant. So, in Chapter 2, I turn directly to Kant\u27s third Critique, specifically §49, and argue that Kant\u27s theory of aesthetic ideas is a plausible theory of metaphor -- more plausible than is his theory of symbolically exhibited ideas, which I take to be analogies. The two central features of a Kantian metaphor are that it allows one to adopt a variety of standpoints from which to contemplate or think rational ideas, and that built into the capacity to adopt standpoints for this purpose is the ability to think from both particular and universal points of view -- e.g., to make subjective claims that have universal validity. Chapter 3 involves the argument that critique is a Kantian metaphor. This argument relies on the success of the main argument in Chapter 2, along with the etymological and socio-historical analyses of critique as adopting standpoints. This argument leads to the claim that critique is a metaphor for transcendental self-consciousness. Since critique as a Kantian metaphor reflects the capacity not only to adopt a variety of standpoints for contemplating the nature and scope of knowledge, but also for attempting to press past epistemological boundaries, we have to find a feature of the mind that is the source of that capacity. On the interpretation of transcendental self-consciousness as the only such feature of the mind, I conclude it to be the source of critique as a Kantian metaphor. From this it follows that critique as a Kantian metaphor has epistemological significance. That is because transcendental self-consciousness must be presupposed in all judgments
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