67 research outputs found

    Impact of precursor-derived peracetic acid on post-weaning diarrhea , intestinal microbiota and predicted microbial functional genes in weaned pigs

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    Post-weaning diarrhea affects piglets in the nursery phase of production, leading to a substantial impact both at the farm and financial levels. The multifactorial etiology of this disease includes housing conditions, pig genetics, microbial composition, and metagenomic assets. Among the common therapeutic approaches, the widely used zinc oxide underwent a European Union ban in 2022 due to its negative environmental impact and correlation to increased antimicrobial resistance. During this study, we have tested two levels of inclusion of the potential antimicrobial alternative peracetic acid, delivered in water via the hydrolysis of the precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine, in comparison to zinc oxide and an untreated control during a 2-week animal study. We assessed the microbial composition and predicted the metagenome, together with performance and physiological parameters, in order to describe the microbial functional role in etiopathology. Both zinc oxide and peracetic acid resulted in amelioration of the diarrheal status by the end of the trial period, with noticeable zinc oxide effects visible from the first week. This was accompanied by improved performance when compared to the first-week figures and a decreased stomach pH in both peracetic acid levels. A significant reduction in both stomach and caecal Proteobacteria was recorded in the zinc oxide group, and a significant reduction of Campylobacter in the stomach was reported for both zinc oxide and one of the peracetic acid concentrations. Among other functional differences, we found that the predicted ortholog for the zonula occludens toxin, a virulence factor present in pathogens like Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, was less abundant in the stomach of treated pigs compared to the control group. In water, peracetic acid delivered via precursor hydrolysis has the potential to be a valid intervention, an alternative to antimicrobial, to assist the weaning of piglets. Our findings support the view that post-weaning diarrhea is a complex multifactorial disease with an important metagenomic component characterized by the differential abundance of specific predicted orthologs and microbial genera in the stomach and caecum of pigs

    Impact of precursor-derived peracetic acid on post-weaning diarrhea , intestinal microbiota and predicted microbial functional genes in weaned pigs

    Get PDF
    Post-weaning diarrhea affects piglets in the nursery phase of production, leading to a substantial impact both at the farm and financial levels. The multifactorial etiology of this disease includes housing conditions, pig genetics, microbial composition, and metagenomic assets. Among the common therapeutic approaches, the widely used zinc oxide underwent a European Union ban in 2022 due to its negative environmental impact and correlation to increased antimicrobial resistance. During this study, we have tested two levels of inclusion of the potential antimicrobial alternative peracetic acid, delivered in water via the hydrolysis of the precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine, in comparison to zinc oxide and an untreated control during a 2-week animal study. We assessed the microbial composition and predicted the metagenome, together with performance and physiological parameters, in order to describe the microbial functional role in etiopathology. Both zinc oxide and peracetic acid resulted in amelioration of the diarrheal status by the end of the trial period, with noticeable zinc oxide effects visible from the first week. This was accompanied by improved performance when compared to the first-week figures and a decreased stomach pH in both peracetic acid levels. A significant reduction in both stomach and caecal Proteobacteria was recorded in the zinc oxide group, and a significant reduction of Campylobacter in the stomach was reported for both zinc oxide and one of the peracetic acid concentrations. Among other functional differences, we found that the predicted ortholog for the zonula occludens toxin, a virulence factor present in pathogens like Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, was less abundant in the stomach of treated pigs compared to the control group. In water, peracetic acid delivered via precursor hydrolysis has the potential to be a valid intervention, an alternative to antimicrobial, to assist the weaning of piglets. Our findings support the view that post-weaning diarrhea is a complex multifactorial disease with an important metagenomic component characterized by the differential abundance of specific predicted orthologs and microbial genera in the stomach and caecum of pigs

    Pre-registration student nurses' preconceptions, attitudes and experience regarding clinical placement in primary health care

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    Background: There is a renewed focus on the role of primary health care within health systems owing to an ageing population, increasing cost of acute health care services and an emphasis on developing healthier communities. Associated with this focus is the need for increasing the primary health care workforce capacity. However, primary health care is rarely prioritised within pre-registration nursing curricula. By understanding the perspectives and experiences of student nurses regarding clinical placement in primary health care, educators and industry will be better informed to support the student nurse within this setting.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the preconceptions, attitudes and experience of pre-registration nursing students who were assigned clinical placement at a primary health care clinic.Method: Naturalistic inquiry and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Eight pre-registration student nurses who had attended clinical placement within a primary health care clinic were recruited and individually interviewed. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed, and findings were developed according to the Preconceptions and Learning Framework (Meheut, 2012).Findings: Three themes were modelled on the Preconceptions and Learning Framework. Theme one is preconceptions, which refers to the varying preconceived ideas the participants held towards primary health care. Theme two is learning and this theme relates to the way in which the clinical placement experience in primary health care altered some participants' preconceived ideas towards this setting. The third theme is knowledge, and it relates to the increased understanding the participants held towards primary health care, and the broader health care system, as a result of the clinical placement experience. Conclusions: To ensure pre-registration student nurses are properly prepared to enter the workforce, they need to be provided nursing education that acknowledges and values the role of primary health care within the healthcare system. Hence, primary health care needs to be integrated throughout pre-registration nursing curricula to ensure understanding and value, and such integration should include clinical placement within this setting

    Precursor-derived in-water peracetic acid impacts on broiler performance, gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance genes

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    Past antimicrobial misuse has led to the spread of antimicrobial resistance amongst pathogens, reportedly a major public health threat. Attempts to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria are in place worldwide, among which finding alternatives to antimicrobials have a pivotal role. Such molecules could be used as “green alternatives” to reduce the bacterial load either by targeting specific bacterial groups or more generically, functioning as biocides when delivered in vivo. In this study, the effect of in-water peracetic acid as a broad-spectrum antibiotic alternative for broilers was assessed via hydrolysis of precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine. Six equidistant peracetic acid levels were tested from 0 to 50 ppm using four pens per treatment and 4 birds per pen (i.e., 16 birds per treatment and 96 in total). Peracetic acid was administered daily from d 7 to 14 of age whilst measuring performance parameters and end-point bacterial concentration (qPCR) in crop, jejunum, and ceca, as well as crop 16S sequencing. PAA treatment, especially at 20, 30, and 40 ppm, increased body weight at d 14, and feed intake during PAA exposure compared to control (P < 0.05). PAA decreased bacterial concentration in the crop only (P < 0.05), which was correlated to better performance (P < 0.05). Although no differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were found, it was observed a reduction of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05) and Flectobacillus (P < 0.05) in most treatments compared to control, together with an increased abundance of predicted 4-aminobutanoate degradation (V) pathway. The analysis of the AMR genes did not point towards any systematic differences in gene abundance due to treatment administration. This, together with the rest of our observations could indicate that proximal gut microbiota modulation could result in performance amelioration. Thus, peracetic acid may be a valid antimicrobial alternative that could also positively affect performance

    UReCA, the NCHC Web journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity

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    Our vision is an academic community without borders, a connected network of aspirational students committed to the advancement of knowledge and appreciation of the arts. UReCA fosters the exchange of intellectual and creative work between undergraduate students, providing a platform where students can engage with and contribute to the advancement of their individual fields. UReCA was first conceived by Johnny MacLean (Southern Utah University) and Brian White (Graceland University) at an annual NCHC conference in Phoenix, Arizona. MacLean and White noticed that while several academic outlets existed for honors faculty and administrators, there was an absence of student-focused publications within the NCHC community. Inspired by the experiential education model used by Partners in the Parks, Johnny and Brian saw another opportunity for honors students to engage in experiential learning. Their vision: an international undergraduate journal, peer reviewed and produced for the web by an interdisciplinary community of honors students
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