630 research outputs found

    Superintegrability and higher order polynomial algebras II

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    In an earlier article, we presented a method to obtain integrals of motion and polynomial algebras for a class of two-dimensional superintegrable systems from creation and annihilation operators. We discuss the general case and present its polynomial algebra. We will show how this polynomial algebra can be directly realized as a deformed oscillator algebra. This particular algebraic structure allows to find the unitary representations and the corresponding energy spectrum. We apply this construction to a family of caged anisotropic oscillators. The method can be used to generate new superintegrable systems with higher order integrals. We obtain new superintegrable systems involving the fourth Painleve transcendent and present their integrals of motion and polynomial algebras.Comment: 11 page

    Structure of a bacterial type IV secretion core complex at subnanometre resolution

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    Type IV secretion (T4S) systems are able to transport DNAs and/or proteins through the membranes of bacteria. They form large multiprotein complexes consisting of 12 proteins termed VirB1-11 and VirD4. VirB7, 9 and 10 assemble into a 1.07 MegaDalton membrane-spanning core complex (CC), around which all other components assemble. This complex is made of two parts, the O-layer inserted in the outer membrane and the I-layer inserted in the inner membrane. While the structure of the O-layer has been solved by X-ray crystallography, there is no detailed structural information on the I-layer. Using high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy and molecular modelling combined with biochemical approaches, we determined the I-layer structure and located its various components in the electron density. Our results provide new structural insights on the CC, from which the essential features of T4S system mechanisms can be derived

    Tropical Grass Growth Functions Modeling by Using Nonlinear Mixed Models

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    Nonlinear Growth curves are used for modeling plant physiological variables. These models are preferable because the polynomial coefficients of the equations have a biological significance. The response variables of the curves occurs commonly with repeated measurements over time and measurements are on different environments. The traditional statistical analysis does not include a repeated measures approach, which can lead to improper estimation of the error terms. It is important to study the growth of tropical grass (Da Silva and Carvalho 2005)

    Laser‐facilitated epicutaneous immunotherapy with depigmented house dust mite extract alleviates allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation

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    Background Skin-based immunotherapy of type 1 allergies has recently been re-investigated as an alternative for subcutaneous injections. In the current study, we employed a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced lung inflammation to explore the potential of laser-facilitated epicutaneous allergen-specific treatment. Methods Mice were sensitized against native Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract and repeatedly treated by application of depigmented D pteronyssinus extract via laser-generated skin micropores or by subcutaneous injection with or without alum. Following aerosol challenges, lung function was determined by whole-body plethysmography and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for cellular composition and cytokine levels. HDM-specific IgG subclass antibodies were determined by ELISA. Serum as well as cell-bound IgE was measured by ELISA, rat basophil leukemia cell assay, and ex vivo using a basophil activation test, respectively. Cultured lymphocytes were analyzed for cytokine secretion profiles and cellular polarization by flow cytometry. Results Immunization of mice by subcutaneous injection or epicutaneous laser microporation induced comparable IgG antibody levels, but the latter preferentially induced regulatory T cells and in general downregulated T cell cytokine production. This effect was found to be a result of the laser treatment itself, independent from extract application. Epicutaneous treatment of sensitized animals led to induction of blocking IgG, and improvement of lung function, superior compared to the effects of subcutaneous therapy. During the whole therapy schedule, no local or systemic side effects occurred. Conclusion Allergen-specific immunotherapy with depigmented HDM extract via laser-generated skin micropores offers a safe and effective treatment option for HDM-induced allergy and lung inflammation

    An infinite family of superintegrable systems from higher order ladder operators and supersymmetry

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    We will discuss how we can obtain new quantum superintegrable Hamiltonians allowing the separation of variables in Cartesian coordinates with higher order integrals of motion from ladder operators. We will discuss also how higher order supersymmetric quantum mechanics can be used to obtain systems with higher order ladder operators and their polynomial Heisenberg algebra. We will present a new family of superintegrable systems involving the fifth Painleve transcendent which possess fourth order ladder operators constructed from second order supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We present the polynomial algebra of this family of superintegrable systems.Comment: 8 pages, presented at ICGTMP 28, accepted for j.conf.serie

    Superintegrable systems with spin and second-order integrals of motion

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    We investigate a quantum nonrelativistic system describing the interaction of two particles with spin 1/2 and spin 0, respectively. We assume that the Hamiltonian is rotationally invariant and parity conserving and identify all such systems which allow additional integrals of motion that are second order matrix polynomials in the momenta. These integrals are assumed to be scalars, pseudoscalars, vectors or axial vectors. Among the superintegrable systems obtained, we mention a generalization of the Coulomb potential with scalar potential V0=αr+328r2V_0=\frac{\alpha}{r}+\frac{3\hbar^2}{8r^2} and spin orbital one V1=2r2V_1=\frac{\hbar}{2r^2}.Comment: 32 page

    Group Approach to the Quantization of the P\"oschl-Teller dynamics

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    The quantum dynamics of a particle in the Modified P\"oschl-Teller potential is derived from the group SL(2,R)SL(2,R) by applying a Group Approach to Quantization (GAQ). The explicit form of the Hamiltonian as well as the ladder operators is found in the enveloping algebra of this basic symmetry group. The present algorithm provides a physical realization of the non-unitary, finite-dimensional, irreducible representations of the SL(2,R)SL(2,R) group. The non-unitarity manifests itself in that only half of the states are normalizable, in contrast with the representations of SU(2) where all the states are physical.Comment: 17 pages, LaTe

    System Dynamics of Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Family Support Among Latina Children and Adolescents

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    The paper describes an approach to developing a data-driven development of a feedback theory of cognitive vulnerabilities and family support focused on understanding the dynamics experienced among Latina children, adolescents, and families. Family support is understood to be a response to avoidant and maladaptive behaviors that may be characteristic of cognitive vulnerabilities commonly associated depression and suicidal ideation. A formal feedback theory is developed, appraised, and analyzed using a combination of secondary analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 30) and quantitative analysis using system dynamics modeling and simulation. Implications for prevention practice, treatment, and future research are discussed

    The Chicken Yolk Sac IgY Receptor, a Mammalian Mannose Receptor Family Member, Transcytoses IgY across Polarized Epithelial Cells

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    In mammals the transfer of passive immunity from mother to young is mediated by the MHC-related receptor FcRn, which transports maternal IgG across epithelial cell barriers. In birds, maternal IgY in egg yolk is transferred across the yolk sac to passively immunize chicks during gestation and early independent life. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor (FcRY) is the ortholog of the mammalian phospholipase A2 receptor, a mannose receptor family member, rather than an FcRn or MHC homolog. FcRn and FcRY both exhibit ligand binding at the acidic pH of endosomes and ligand release at the slightly basic pH of blood. Here we show that FcRY expressed in polarized mammalian epithelial cells functioned in endocytosis, bidirectional transcytosis, and recycling of chicken FcY/IgY. Confocal immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that IgY binding and endocytosis occurred at acidic but not basic pH, mimicking pH-dependent uptake of IgG by FcRn. Colocalization studies showed FcRY-mediated internalization via clathrin-coated pits and transport involving early and recycling endosomes. Disruption of microtubules partially inhibited apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, but not recycling, suggesting the use of different trafficking machinery. Our results represent the first cell biological evidence of functional equivalence between FcRY and FcRn and provide an intriguing example of how evolution can give rise to systems in which similar biological requirements in different species are satisfied utilizing distinct protein folds
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