1,347 research outputs found

    Review: The influence of genotypic and phenotypic factors on the comfort and welfare rates of cows during the period of global climate changes

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    Saabunud / Received 21.03.2021 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 04.06.2021 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 04.06.2021 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Oleksandr O. Borshch [email protected] study of the influence of weather phenomena on behavioural and physiological processes plays an important role in the development of highly effective methods of dairy farming management. Climate and weather factors have important signification in the system of interaction "organism-environment". One of the main factors of cows’ comfort improvement in different types of premises, on ground runs and pastures is the creation of such indicators of microclimate that would best meet the biological needs of dairy cows, depending on the season and productivity. Due to the constant metabolic processes, the body of cattle is very hurtable to ambient temperature. This is especially felt during periods of prolonged low or high-temperature shocks. Disorders of metabolic and thermoregulatory processes directly affect the duration and nature of behavioural and physiological reactions and cause stress in animals. Prolonged temperature stress is the reason for fluctuations in productivity, quality of milk and problems with reproduction and together significantly affect the profitability of production. To reduce the impact of temperature stress on the body of dairy cows, scientists have proposed management strategies during periods of high and low-temperature shock. These strategies are divided into genotypic: the selection of heat-resistant individuals of different breeds and phenotypic: the use of microclimate control methods and modernization of feeding management methods. The effect of temperature stress on the body of dairy cows can be minimized due to genotypic (breeding of heat-resistant breeds) and phenotypic factors (water irrigation systems, ventilation, and the use of shade shaded shelters in summer and insulation of side curtains in winter), or a combination thereof. The purpose of this article is to summarize existing knowledge about the effects of temperature stress on the health, productivity and comfort rates of cows and to discuss management strategies that would mitigate the effects of these factors

    Bioenergetic and ethological features of the first-calf heifers of different genotypes

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    The aim of this work was to study bioenergetic and ethological indicators in crossbred first-calf heifers compared to purebred first-calf heifers. The research was conducted on the first-calf heifers of Ukrainian Black-Pied dairy breed and first-generation crossbreeds obtained as a result of crossing with Brown Swiss breed, as well as, on the first-calf heifers of Ukrainian Red-Pied dairy breed and first-generation crossbreeds obtained as a result of crossing Ukrainian Red-Pied dairy with Montbéliarde breed. The purebred Black-and Red-Pied first-calf heifers prevailed over crossbreed first-calf heifers on the indicator of milk yield for 305 days of lactation by 106.45 and 218.36 kg, respectively. Accordingly, the indicators of average daily milk yield were also higher by 0.35 and 0.72 kg and the indicators of average daily milk yield adjusted by 4 % fat content per 0.15 and 0.16 kg. At the same time, the indicator of average fat content in milk prevailed in crossbreeds of Black-Pied and Brown Swiss breed by 0.08 % compared to purebred Black-Pied breeds, and in Red-Pied crossbreeds with Montbéliarde breed by 0.16 % compared to purebred Red-Pied breeds. The purebred Black-Pied first-calf heifers had an advantage by 2.04 MJ compared to crossbreeds, while the Red-Pied first-calf heifers had a slight advantage by 0.06 MJ compared to crossbreed first-calf heifers on the indicator of daily cost of exchange energy (EE). The purebred Black-and Red-Pied first-calf heifers had higher cost of exchange energy allocated with milk compared to crossbreed first-calf heifers by 0.42 and 0.82 MJ. They also had higher cost of exchange energy rates for heat products by 0.79 and 0.25 MJ. According to the energy index indicator, purebred Black - and Red-Pied first-calf heifers prevailed over crossbreeds first-calf heifers by 0.16 and 0.07 %, respectively. The same trend was observed in relation to the productive index indicator. The purebred Black-and Red-Pied first-calf heifers had a slight advantage by 0.001 and 0.002 kg adjusted by 4 % of milk fat content per 1 MJ. According to the indicators of daily behavioral reactions, no special differences between a purebred and crossbreed were found

    Influence of low temperatures on heat balance in easily assembled premises of different types

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    The purpose of this work was to analyze the thermal balance of easily assembled premises of different types and sizes during the periods of low average daily temperatures. The research was conducted during the winter period of 2020–2021 in the Kyiv region. The used material was easily assembled premises of different types and sizes: easily assembled ones without insulation elements; with elements of warming and premises with deep-litter. In each of the studied premises were kept 400 dairy cows. The studies were performed during two periods: the first period had ambient temperatures from -10 to -14.9 °C and the second one from -15.0 °C and below. In our studies, the average daily temperature (during the ambient temperature from -10 to 14.9 °C) in easily assembled premises with the use of insulation elements was 6.20 and 5.31 °C higher than in premises without insulation and deep-litter. A similar trend was observed during the period of lowering the ambient temperature up to 15 °C and below. Thus, the advantage of the premises without insulation constituted 6.28 °C, and of the premises with deep-litter per 5.84 °C, respectively. It was found that keeping in easy-to-assemble premises with insulation elements, the consumption of free thermal energy from the whole herd during the experimental periods was lower compared to the keeping in a boxing cowshed and a cowshed with deep litter. This is due to the smaller range of fluctuations in the average daily temperature in a room with insulation elements. A similar trend was observed for energy consumption through enclosing structures and for moisture evaporation and, accordingly, total heat consumption. In general, heat deficiency was observed during the keeping of cows in the investigated premises of easily assembled type at negative temperatures (-10–14.9 and -15 °С and above). Accordingly, the thermal balance of the premises was negative. The highest values of heat balance among easily assembled premises in both research periods were observed for keeping in rooms that used insulation elements

    Indicators of the behavior of highly productive cows under the conditions of using feed stations

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    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of feed stations on behavioral indicators of high-yielding cows. The research was conducted at two farms of TDV “Terezine” (Kyiv region) with different options for feeding fodder: from a feed table and a feed table + at feed stations. On each farm, a group of unpregnant high-yielding cows of the Ukrainian black-spotted dairy breed (II lactation and older) with a daily productivity of 30 kg and above during the calving period (2–3 months of lactation) was formed. Using feed stations for concentrated feeds affected the daily behavior of high-yielding cows. With this option of feeding, lower values of the duration of walking and standing were observed (by 16.3 and 9.6 min), as well as a slightly longer duration of lying down rest – by 17.4 min. The total feeding duration was longer due to the consumption of concentrated feeds at feeding stations, which was 25.6 minutes. At both farms, the peak of daily foraging activity occurred at 08:00 and 18:00. On average, during the day, cows approached the feed table and ate feed 8.7 times (maximum 12, minimum 6). At the farm with concentrated fodder feeding at feed stations, the average hourly duration of fodder consumption from the feed table was slightly lower (by 1–8 min) than at the farm where cows were fed only with fodder mixtures. At the farm, with the use of feed stations, the values of the indices of comfort, use of stalls, and feeding were 3.14, 1.62, and 0.03 % higher compared to the option where cows were fed only with feed mixtures. This trend is explained by a slightly higher duration of rest and general feed consumption and, accordingly, a lower duration of walking and standing of animals. Somewhat lower values were for the index of standing, discomfort, and drunkenness, which were higher for feeding feed from the feed table – by 1.79, 0.04, and 0.008%, respectivel

    Composition and cheese suitability of milk from local Ukrainian cows and their crossbreedings with Montbeliarde breed

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    Received: July 19th, 2022 ; Accepted: September 8th, 2022 ; Published: September 12th, 2022 ; Correspondence: [email protected] aim of this work was to compare the qualitative composition of milk and its suitability for cheese processing at cows of local Ukrainian Red-Spotted breed (URS) and their crossbreeds with Montbeliarde (MO) breed. The research was conducted at commercial farm in the Vinnytsia region, Ukraine (48° 57′01″ n.l., 28° 47′09″ e.l). At farm, two groups of purebred and crossbred first lactation cows-analogues with a population of 20 heads in each were formed. The use of crossbreeding cows URS × Montbéliarde breed had a positive effect on the milk composition and cheese suitability. It was established that local purebred cows exceeded purebred counterparts in daily milk yield by 2.47 kg. When the content of fat, protein and lactose in milk was higher in crossbreed group by 0.19, 0.19 and 0.12%, respectively. In addition, crossbreed cows surpassed purebred counterparts for the energy value of 1 kg of milk and theoretically possible output of rennet cheese by 0.142 MJ and 0.61 kg. The duration of the coagulation phase of milk obtained from crossbred cows was shorter than that of purebred analogues by 1.54 minutes