541,712 research outputs found

    X-ray Diffraction Tomographic Imaging and Reconstruction

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    Material discrimination based on conventional or dual energy X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging can be ambiguous. X-ray diffraction imaging (XDI) can be used to construct diffraction profiles of objects, providing new molecular signature information that can be used to characterize the presence of specific materials. Combining X-ray CT and diffraction imaging can lead to enhanced detection and identification of explosives in luggage screening. In this work we are investigating techniques for joint reconstruction of CT absorption and X-ray diffraction profile images of objects to achieve improved image quality and enhanced material classification. The initial results have been validated via simulation of X-ray absorption and coherent scattering in 2 dimensions.U. S. Department of Homeland Security (2008-ST-061-ED0001

    X-ray diffraction from shock-loaded polycrystals

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    X-ray diffraction was demonstrated from shock-compressed polycrystalline metal on nanosecond time scales. Laser ablation was used to induce shock waves in polycrystalline foils of Be, 25 to 125 microns thick. A second laser pulse was used to generate a plasma x-ray source by irradiation of a Ti foil. The x-ray source was collimated to produce a beam of controllable diameter, and the beam was directed at the Be sample. X-rays were diffracted from the sample, and detected using films and x-ray streak cameras. The diffraction angle was observed to change with shock pressure. The diffraction angles were consistent with the uniaxial (elastic) and isotropic (plastic) compressions expected for the loading conditions used. Polycrystalline diffraction will be used to measure the response of the crystal lattice to high shock pressures and through phase changes

    Gas gun shock experiments with single-pulse x-ray phase contrast imaging and diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

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    The highly transient nature of shock loading and pronounced microstructure effects on dynamic materials response call for {\it in situ}, temporally and spatially resolved, x-ray-based diagnostics. Third-generation synchrotron x-ray sources are advantageous for x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) and diffraction under dynamic loading, due to their high photon energy, high photon fluxes, high coherency, and high pulse repetition rates. The feasibility of bulk-scale gas gun shock experiments with dynamic x-ray PCI and diffraction measurements was investigated at the beamline 32ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source. The x-ray beam characteristics, experimental setup, x-ray diagnostics, and static and dynamic test results are described. We demonstrate ultrafast, multiframe, single-pulse PCI measurements with unprecedented temporal (<<100 ps) and spatial (\sim2 μ\mum) resolutions for bulk-scale shock experiments, as well as single-pulse dynamic Laue diffraction. The results not only substantiate the potential of synchrotron-based experiments for addressing a variety of shock physics problems, but also allow us to identify the technical challenges related to image detection, x-ray source, and dynamic loading

    Impact of ultrafast electronic damage in single particle x-ray imaging experiments

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    In single particle coherent x-ray diffraction imaging experiments, performed at x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), samples are exposed to intense x-ray pulses to obtain single-shot diffraction patterns. The high intensity induces electronic dynamics on the femtosecond time scale in the system, which can reduce the contrast of the obtained diffraction patterns and adds an isotropic background. We quantify the degradation of the diffraction pattern from ultrafast electronic damage by performing simulations on a biological sample exposed to x-ray pulses with different parameters. We find that the contrast is substantially reduced and the background is considerably strong only if almost all electrons are removed from their parent atoms. This happens at fluences of at least one order of magnitude larger than provided at currently available XFEL sources.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures submitted to PR

    X-Ray sum frequency generation; direct imaging of ultrafast electron dynamics

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    X-ray diffraction from molecules in the ground state produces an image of their charge density, and time-resolved X-ray diffraction can thus monitor the motion of the nuclei. However, the density change of excited valence electrons upon optical excitation can barely be monitored with regular diffraction techniques due to the overwhelming background contribution of the core electrons. We present a nonlinear X-ray technique made possible by novel free electron laser sources, which provides a spatial electron density image of valence electron excitations. The technique, sum frequency generation carried out with a visible pump and a broadband X-ray diffraction pulse, yields snapshots of the transition charge densities, which represent the electron density variations upon optical excitation. The technique is illustrated by ab initio simulations of transition charge density imaging for the optically induced electronic dynamics in a donor/acceptor substituted stilbene