43,819 research outputs found

    Huerta comunitaria en la vereda Cafifies municipio de Pore-Casanare

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    Encontramos en los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible 2030, impulsado por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, colocar fin al hambre, generar una producción y consumo responsable. Los proyectos de Huertas Comunitarias, son una forma de hacer realidad varios de estos objetivos. En la vereda Cafifies, municipio de Pore, Casanare, encontramos que 77 familias radicadas en 66 predios, tienen inconvenientes en la adquisición y consumo de frutas y hortalizas. Diferentes aspectos de distancia, clima, ingresos económicos, cultura gastronómica, acceso, intervienen para el consumo de frutas, verduras como fuente de una alimentación saludable. La puesta en marcha de una huerta comunitaria es una forma de colocar fin a esta problemática. Se realiza una propuesta de valor, un Desing Thinking, un diseño de estrategias de marketing y un estudio de recursos operativos y financieros, para la puesta en marcha del mismo. Este tipo de proyectos comunitarios se sustentan en base de la solidaridad, asociatividad y el trabajo en equipo.We find in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, promoted by the United Nations Organization, to end hunger, generate responsible production and consumption. Community Garden projects are a way of making several of these goals a reality. In the village of Cafifies, municipality of Pore, Casanare, we found that 77 families who live in 66 properties have problems in the acquisition and consumption of fruits and vegetables. Different aspects of distance, climate, economic income, gastronomic culture, access, intervene for the consumption of fruits and vegetables as a source of healthy food. The implementation of a community garden is a way to end this problem. For its implementation, a value proposal, a Design Thinking, a design of marketing strategies and a study of operational and financial resources were carried out. These types of community projects are based on solidarity, associativity and teamwork

    EVALUACIÓN ANALGÉSICA PERIOPERATORIA DEL ACETAMINOFÉN EN PERRAS SOMETIDAS A OVARIOHISTERECTOMÍA ELECTIVA

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    Tesis de doctorado que evalúa el efecto analgésico del acetaminofén en perras ovarihisterectomizadas.La administración de analgésicos antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINES) para el control del dolor post-quirúrgico en perros es una práctica común, debido a sus efectos analgésicos, antiinflamatorios y antipiréticos. En el presente trabajo se realizaron dos estudios. En el experimento 1, el objetivo fue evaluar la analgesia post-operatoria del acetaminofén (paracetamol) a través de la utilización de las escalas de reconocimiento clínico del dolor DIVAS (Escala Dinámica e Interactiva Analógica Visual) y UMPS (Escala de la Universidad de Melbourne), en perras sometidas a ovariohisterectomía electiva. Además de valorar la seguridad y eficacia clínica del uso del acetaminofén en perros mediante pruebas de funcionamiento hepático y renal en el post-operatorio inmediato. Para ello, se utilizaron 30 perras de diferentes razas que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a uno de los tres grupos de tratamiento: acetaminofén [GACET; n=10, 15 mg kg-1 intravenoso (IV)], carprofeno (GCARP; n=10, 4 mg kg-1 IV) y meloxicam (GMELOX; n=10, 0.2 mg kg-1 IV). Todos los tratamientos se administraron 30 minutos antes de la cirugía y posterior a esta durante 48 horas. En este período el acetaminofén se administró por vía oral cada 8 horas (15 mg kg-1); el carprofeno (4 mg kg-1) y el meloxicam (0.1 mg kg-1) se administraron por vía IV cada 24 horas. Durante el postoperatorio, los sistemas de puntuación del dolor DIVAS y UMPS fueron medidos a las 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36 y 48 horas post-cirugía. Para evaluar la seguridad clínica de los tratamientos, se recolectaron muestras de sangre de la vena yugular para realizar la medición de enzimas ALT, AST, ALP, y los metabolitos bilirrubina directa, bilirrubina indirecta, bilirrubina total, creatinina, urea, albúmina y glucosa. Esto fue realizado en T0 (pre-anestesia; TBASAL), 48 y 96 horas después de la cirugía (T48, T96). Los resultados indican que en la evaluación clínica del dolor de todos los grupos de estudio, hubo una reducción gradual en la percepción del mismo durante el postoperatorio en ambos sistemas de puntuación; no obstante, también fue observado que ninguna escala difirió significativamente entre los tres grupos de tratamiento (P>0.05) en cada momento de evaluación durante las 48 horas post-cirugía. En cuanto a los parámetros bioquímico séricos, sólo la ALT aumentó significativamente en T96 en el GACET y GCARP con respecto a los valores basales (P<0.01). El resto de los analitos séricos evaluados se mantuvo en rangos normales. En el experimento 2 bajo el mismo diseño experimental de tratamientos administrados, el objetivo fue evaluar el efecto analgésico perioperatorio del acetaminofén 2 administrado pre y post-quirúrgicamente en perras sometidas a ovariohisterectomía electiva a través de la medición del índice de la actividad del tono parasimpático (PTA). Este parámetro hemodinámico fue medido 60 minutos antes de la cirugía (TBASAL) y durante el transquirúrgico en la aplicación de estímulos nociceptivos: colocación de las pinzas de campo backhouse (TPINZ), incisión de piel y abordaje quirúrgico primario (TINC), ligadura y extracción de pedículo ovárico izquierdo (TOVI) y derecho (TOVD), ligadura y transfixión del cuello uterino (TLIGUT), sección quirúrgica del cuello uterino (TCUT), reconstrucción de peritoneo y planos anatómicos musculares (TMUSC) y sutura de piel (TSUT). Durante el postoperatorio, el índice PTA fue valorado a las 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36 y 48 horas, en los mismos tiempos en que fueron evaluadas las escalas de reconocimiento de dolor DIVAS y UMPS. Los resultados obtenidos en la medición del índice PTA basal para GACET fue 65 ± 8, para GCARP 65 ± 7 y para GMELOX 62 ± 5. Durante los diferentes tiempos transquirúrgicos, los valores promedio de índice PTA indican que GACET (76 ± 14) y GMELOX (72 ± 18) muestran tendencia a manifestar mayores niveles en comparación con GCARP (62 ± 13) desde el inicio del procedimiento quirúrgico sin que esto pudiera comprobarse estadísticamente, ya que no hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos de tratamiento ni entre los tiempos quirúrgicos evaluados (P>0.05). En el postoperatorio, el índice PTA fue de 65 ± 9 en el GACET, 63 ± 8 en el GCARP y 65 ± 8 en el GMELOX. Los resultados tampoco mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con los valores basales o entre los tratamientos (P>0.05). El índice PTA postoperatorio mostró una sensibilidad del 40%, especificidad del 98.46% y valor predictivo negativo del 99.07% con respecto a la escala validada de UMPS. En conclusión, el acetaminofén puede considerarse una herramienta para el tratamiento efectivo del dolor perioperatorio agudo en perros, ya que mostró la misma eficacia clínica que el meloxicam y el carprofeno para la analgesia postquirúrgica en perras sometidas a ovariohisterectomía electiva. Además, la evidencia del uso de este medicamento no condujo a reacciones adversas o cambios en los parámetros evaluados, lo que indica su seguridad clínica. Finalmente, destacar que el índice PTA representa una medición objetiva del comfort y analgesia postoperatoria, por lo que es una herramienta que podría ayudar a predecir las respuestas hemodinámicas asociadas con el dolor

    Metabolic and nutritional triggers associated with increased risk of liver complications in SARS-CoV-2

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    Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer and smoking are risk factors for negative outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can quickly induce severe respiratory failure in 5% of cases. Coronavirus disease-associated liver injury may occur during progression of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with or without pre-existing liver disease, and damage to the liver parenchyma can be caused by infection of hepatocytes. Cirrhosis patients may be particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 if suffering with cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction. Furthermore, pharmacotherapies including macrolide or quinolone antibiotics and steroids can also induce liver damage. In this review we addressed nutritional status and nutritional interventions in severe SARS-CoV-2 liver patients. As guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 in intensive care (IC) specifically are not yet available, strategies for management of sepsis and SARS are suggested in SARS-CoV-2. Early enteral nutrition (EN) should be started soon after IC admission, preferably employing iso-osmolar polymeric formula with initial protein content at 0.8 g/kg per day progressively increasing up to 1.3 g/kg per day and enriched with fish oil at 0.1 g/kg per day to 0.2 g/kg per day. Monitoring is necessary to identify signs of intolerance, hemodynamic instability and metabolic disorders, and transition to parenteral nutrition should not be delayed when energy and protein targets cannot be met via EN. Nutrients including vitamins A, C, D, E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, selenium and ω-3 fatty acids have in isolation or in combination shown beneficial effects upon immune function and inflammation modulation. Cautious and monitored supplementation up to upper limits may be beneficial in management strategies for SARS-CoV-2 liver patients

    RNA pull-down-confocal nanoscanning (RP-CONA), a novel method for studying RNA/protein interactions in cell extracts that detected potential drugs for Parkinson’s disease targeting RNA/HuR complexes

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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through specific base-pair targeting. The functional mature miRNAs usually undergo a two-step cleavage from primary miRNAs (pri-miRs), then precursor miRNAs (pre-miRs). The biogenesis of miRNAs is tightly controlled by different RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The dysregulation of miRNAs is closely related to a plethora of diseases. Targeting miRNA biogenesis is becoming a promising therapeutic strategy. HuR and MSI2 are both RBPs. MiR-7 is post-transcriptionally inhibited by the HuR/MSI2 complex, through a direct interaction between HuR and the conserved terminal loop (CTL) of pri-miR-7-1. Small molecules dissociating pri-miR-7/HuR interaction may induce miR-7 production. Importantly, the miR-7 levels are negatively correlated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a common, incurable neurodegenerative disease causing serious motor deficits. A hallmark of PD is the presence of Lewy bodies in the human brain, which are inclusion bodies mainly composed of an aberrantly aggregated protein named α-synuclein (α-syn). Decreasing α-syn levels or preventing α-syn aggregation are under investigation as PD treatments. Notably, α-syn is negatively regulated by several miRNAs, including miR-7, miR-153, miR-133b and others. One hypothesis is that elevating these miRNA levels can inhibit α-syn expression and ameliorate PD pathologies. In this project, we identified miR-7 as the most effective α-syn inhibitor, among the miRNAs that are downregulated in PD, and with α-syn targeting potentials. We also observed potential post-transcriptional inhibition on miR-153 biogenesis in neuroblastoma, which may help to uncover novel therapeutic targets towards PD. To identify miR-7 inducers that benefit PD treatment by repressing α-syn expression, we developed a novel technique RNA Pull-down Confocal Nanoscaning (RP-CONA) to monitor the binding events between pri-miR-7 and HuR. By attaching FITC-pri-miR-7-1-CTL-biotin to streptavidin-coated agarose beads and incubating them in human cultured cell lysates containing overexpressed mCherry-HuR, the bound RNA and protein can be visualised as quantifiable fluorescent rings in corresponding channels in a confocal high-content image system. A pri-miR-7/HuR inhibitor can decrease the relative mCherry/FITC intensity ratio in RP-CONA. With this technique, we performed several small-scale screenings and identified that a bioflavonoid, quercetin can largely dissociate the pri-miR-7/HuR interaction. Further studies proved that quercetin was an effective miR-7 inducer as well as α-syn inhibitor in HeLa cells. To understand the mechanism of quercetin mediated α-syn inhibition, we tested the effects of quercetin treatment with miR-7-1 and HuR knockout HeLa cells. We found that HuR was essential in this pathway, while miR-7 hardly contributed to the α-syn inhibition. HuR can directly bind an AU-rich element (ARE) at the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of α-syn mRNA and promote translation. We believe quercetin mainly disrupts the ARE/HuR interaction and disables the HuR-induced α-syn expression. In conclusion, we developed and optimised RP-CONA, an on-bead, lysate-based technique detecting RNA/protein interactions, as well as identifying RNA/protein modulators. With RP-CONA, we found quercetin inducing miR-7 biogenesis, and inhibiting α-syn expression. With these beneficial effects, quercetin has great potential to be applied in the clinic of PD treatment. Finally, RP-CONA can be used in many other RNA/protein interactions studies

    Carbon dioxide removal potential from decentralised bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and the relevance of operational choices

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    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology is expected to support net-zero targets by supplying low carbon energy while providing carbon dioxide removal (CDR). BECCS is estimated to deliver 20 to 70 MtCO2 annual negative emissions by 2050 in the UK, despite there are currently no BECCS operating facility. This research is modelling and demonstrating the flexibility, scalability and attainable immediate application of BECCS. The CDR potential for two out of three BECCS pathways considered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios were quantified (i) modular-scale CHP process with post-combustion CCS utilising wheat straw and (ii) hydrogen production in a small-scale gasifier with pre-combustion CCS utilising locally sourced waste wood. Process modelling and lifecycle assessment were used, including a whole supply chain analysis. The investigated BECCS pathways could annually remove between −0.8 and −1.4 tCO2e tbiomass−1 depending on operational decisions. Using all the available wheat straw and waste wood in the UK, a joint CDR capacity for both systems could reach about 23% of the UK's CDR minimum target set for BECCS. Policy frameworks prioritising carbon efficiencies can shape those operational decisions and strongly impact on the overall energy and CDR performance of a BECCS system, but not necessarily maximising the trade-offs between biomass use, energy performance and CDR. A combination of different BECCS pathways will be necessary to reach net-zero targets. Decentralised BECCS deployment could support flexible approaches allowing to maximise positive system trade-offs, enable regional biomass utilisation and provide local energy supply to remote areas

    Investigation of a Histidine-Based Probe for the Exploration of Proteomes

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    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects 0.7-1 million people per year. Current chemotherapies for leishmaniasis are toxic with long treatment times and reports of increasing resistance, which stresses the importance of this research area. Inositol phosphorylceramide synthase is a membrane bound enzyme that has no direct human homologue, which converts ceramide to inositol phosphorylceramide through the action of a highly conserved HHD catalytic triad. An ideal method to study this enzyme further would be through activity-based protein profiling, however, there are currently no activity-based probes reported that reacts with this type of active site. Therefore, an activity-based probe was designed based on the structure of diethyl pyrocarbonate, a compound known to bind covalently to active site histidine residues. The synthesised activity-based probe was shown to inhibit Leishmania major inositol phosphorylceramide synthase in a simple assay. In addition, the probe was shown to selectively bind to the active site histidine residue in two pure enzyme models; one of which has the same catalytic triad as inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, and the other was an acid base active site histidine residue. Further, this activity-based probe was able to isolate an overexpressed enzyme in the lysate of Escherichia coli as well as bind to intrinsic proteins. Following the function validation of the activity-based probe, preliminary work was started in Leishmania to isolate proteins identify expressed enzymes

    CONTROL OF ADVENTITIOUS ROOT FORMATION IN ARABIDOPSIS

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    Adventitious or de novo root organogenesis is a process that occurs from wounded or detached plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture experiments, the available hormone concentrations in the medium play significant roles in inducing adventitious roots. However, regeneration from detached organs in natural conditions depends on endogenous hormones. To imitate natural conditions, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 leaf explants were cultured on B5 medium without any added hormones, in order to investigate the endogenous hormonal signalling and molecular mechanisms that lead to de novo root organogenesis. Use was made of a series of hormone signalling reporter lines in transgenic Arabidopsis, to understand better the roles of auxin, cytokinin, ethylene and gibberellin signalling. Cell proliferation was monitored over a developmental time course, and the expression of a number of genes, and their functional roles through mutant analysis, was also investigated during the regeneration process. It was demonstrated that auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin signalling becomes focused at the wound site in the petiole, associated with the induction of adventitious roots. Auxin signalling-defective mutants such as axr1, axr3 and pls were unable to form adventitious roots as well as wild type, reflected in defective expression of auxin pathway genes such as YUC family genes and WOX5. pls and axr1 were also found to be defective in the expression of the transcription factor gene NAC1. Mutants and transgenic overexpression lines for transcriptional regulators RAP2.7, MDF1 and NAC1 showed that the three genes are required for adventitious root formation, and function in an auxin-independent manner to mediate root regeneration. Adventitious root formation from the Arabidopsis leaf therefore requires coordinated expression of a number of transcription factors that work in both an auxin-dependent and -independent manner, and cross talk between auxin and other hormones is important for correct organogenesis

    Residue management in double-crop systems: Impact on soybean growth and yield

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    Double-crop soybeans [Glycine max(L.) Merr.] have the potential to be a productive and profitable system. However, due to delayed planting, double-crop soybeans frequently experience lower yields and higher stress. Because planting is a major production constraint, a critical practice is the management of previous wheat residue. Trials were established in 2012, 2013, and 2014 in Saint Joseph, LA, and in 2013 and 2014 in Winnsboro, LA. The four residue management treatments investigated included conventionally tilled, planted into burned residue, planted into mowed residue, and planted into standing wheat residue. Vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, as well as yield, were used to evaluate the influence of residue management on productivity. Overall, residue management did not have a significant impact on early season growth parameters, except for plant height in 2012 at St. Joseph; however, it did significantly influence yield at both locations. In Saint Joseph in 2012, yields from planting into wheat residue were significantly lower than burned and mowed plots (1.2 compared with 2.8 and 2.7 Mg ha-1, respectively), and tilled treatments yielded significantly less than all three nontilled treatments in 2013 and 2014. In Winnsboro, planting into residue left on the soil surface resulted in significantly higher yields than when residue was removed. Overall, leaving residue on the soil surface provided stable yields across years and locations; however, not managing the residue can result in diminished yields. Therefore, practices such as mowing of wheat residue prior to planting provide an alternative to traditional no-till planting.Peer reviewedPlant and Soil Science

    Exploring the Versatility of Benzimidazole Scaffolds as Medicinal Agents: A Brief Update

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    Benzimidazole, one of the finest classes of heterocyclic aromatic compounds have the characteristic structure of benzene fused with a five-membered imidazole ring. Despite being made their first appearance in the late 1870s, they are considered as a ‘privileged molecule’. The applications of this wonder molecule range from medicinal chemistry to material science. Benzimidazole being a potent inhibitor for various enzymes has got therapeutic effects like anticancer, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antihistaminic, antipsychotic, etc. It has also made its existence in various branches of medical science viz ophthalmology, neurology, cardiology and more. The applications of benzimidazole are not only limited to the biological field but also expanded to the field of material chemistry as well. This chapter summarizes the pharmacological properties of benzimidazole, illustrated on numerous derivatives since 2016
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