26,095 research outputs found

    High-throughput sequencing and characterization of potentially pathogenic fungi from the vaginal mycobiome of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in estrus and non-estrus

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    IntroductionThe giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) reproduction is of worldwide attention, and the vaginal microbiome is one of the most important factors affecting the reproductive rate of giant pandas. The aim of this study is to investigate the diversity of vaginal mycobiota structure, and potential pathogenic fungi in female giant pandas during estrus and non-estrus.MethodsThis study combined with high-throughput sequencing and laboratory testing to compare the diversity of the vaginal mycobiota in giant pandas during estrus and non-estrus, and to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi. Potentially pathogenic fungi were studied in mice to explore their pathogenicity.Results and discussionThe results revealed that during estrus, the vaginal secretions of giant pandas play a crucial role in fungal colonization. Moreover, the diversity of the vaginal mycobiota is reduced and specificity is enhanced. The abundance of Trichosporon and Cutaneotrichosporon in the vaginal mycobiota of giant pandas during estrus was significantly higher than that during non-estrus periods. Apiotrichum and Cutaneotrichosporon were considered the most important genera, and they primarily originate from the environment owing to marking behavior exhibited during the estrous period of giant pandas. Trichosporon is considered a resident mycobiota of the vagina and is an important pathogen that causes infection when immune system is suppressed. Potentially pathogenic fungi were further isolated and identified from the vaginal secretions of giant pandas during estrus, and seven strains of Apiotrichum (A. brassicae), one strain of Cutaneotrichosporon (C. moniliiforme), and nine strains of Trichosporon (two strains of T. asteroides, one strain of T. inkin, one strain of T. insectorum, and five strains of T. japonicum) were identified. Pathogenicity results showed that T. asteroides was the most pathogenic strain, as it is associated with extensive connective tissue replacement and inflammatory cell infiltration in both liver and kidney tissues. The results of this study improve our understanding of the diversity of the vaginal fungi present in giant pandas and will significantly contribute to improving the reproductive health of giant pandas in the future


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    This study was conducted to determine the genetic variability among maize inbred lines grown in Iraq by using Simple Sequence Recurrent (SSR) markers. For estimating the genetic relationships, 10 SSR primers were used with 10 maize inbred lines. Two hundred and sixteen alleles (bands) with a range of 13 to 41 were identified for the SSR loci. Polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 10 SSR loci ranged from 0.60% to 100%. Primers ‘umc1566’, ‘umc1542’, and ‘umc2189’ showed the maximum PIC value; by contrast, ‘umc2225’showed the lowest PIC value. The 10 maize inbreds were clustered based on the matrix of genetic similarity using the UPGMA algorithm. Cluster analysis placed the inbreds lines in three clusters based on SSR data. The studied inbreds lines divided to groups and subgroups with cluster analysis that revealed agreement with their geographical origin. The results indicated that SSR marker has a high degree of polymorphism that allows efficient identification of maize genotypes, and this could be used in determining their heterotic groups

    Gut colonization and subsequent infection of neonates caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    The gut microbiota harbors diverse bacteria considered reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes. The global emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) significantly contributes to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We investigated the presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-PEco) and ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-PKpn) in neonatal patients’ guts. Furthermore, we identified the factors contributing to the transition towards ESBL-PEco and ESBL-PKpn-associated healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The study was conducted from August 2019 to February 2020, in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Infantil de MĂ©xico Federico GĂłmez. Rectal samples were obtained upon admission, on a weekly basis for a month, and then biweekly until discharge from the neonatology ward. Clinical data, culture results, and infection information were gathered. We conducted antimicrobial tests, multiplex PCR assay, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile and genetic relationships. A comparison between the group’s controls and cases was performed using the Wilcoxon and Student t-tests. Of the 61 patients enrolled, 47 were included, and 203 rectal samples were collected, identifying 242 isolates. In 41/47 (87%) patients, colonization was due to ESBL-PEco or ESBL-PKpn. And nine of them developed HAIs (22%, 9/41). ESBL-PEco resistance to cephalosporins ranged from 25.4% to 100%, while ESBL-PKpn resistance varied from 3% to 99%, and both bacteria were susceptible to carbapenems, tigecillin, and colistin. The prevalent blaCTX-M-group-1 gene accounted for 77.2% in ESBL-PEco and 82.2% in ESBL-PKpn, followed by blaTEM 50% and blaOXA-1 43.8% in ESBL-PEco and blaTEM 80.2% and blaSHV 76.2% in ESBL-PKpn. Analysis of clonality revealed identical colonizing and infection isolates in only seven patients. Significant risk factors included hospital stay duration, duration of antibiotic treatment, and invasive device usage. Our findings suggest high ESBL-PEco and ESBL-PKpn rates of colonization often lead to infection in neonates. Attention should be paid to patients with ESBL-PE

    Conservation status of Brazilian snakes inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Northeastern Brazil

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    Due to the high level of disturbance in natural ecosystems and the progressive loss of habitats resulting from anthropic occupation, biodiversity conservation represents one of the greatest challenges today. Red lists of threatened species are essential tools for identifying species at risk of extinction and guiding conservation efforts. In this study, we assessed the vulnerability to extinction of 55 snake species that occur in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil in ParaĂ­ba state. We developed vulnerability indices based on 12 factors known to influence the survival of snake populations. To analyze the threat profiles and relative risk levels within the snake community, we employed principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Additionally, we compared our findings with existing red lists of threatened species. Our results reveal that only 18% of the snake fauna in this region is free of any threat. The aquatic species Helicops angulatus and Oxyrhopus trigeminus were the snakes that presented the lowest risk of extinction, while Caaeteboia gaeli and Crotalus durissus presented the highest risk of extinction. Two groups of species were considered non-threatened and five groups were considered threatened. Our study provides the first overview on the conservation status of snake species in the northern portion of the Atlantic Forest and contributes to a better evaluation of conservation planning for this group in the region


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    Taman Nasional Kutai, Provinsi Kalimantan Timur merupakan salah satu kawasan konservasi dengan habitat yang beragam serta potensi keanekaragaman jenis herpetofauna yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan komposisi jenis herpetofauna, membandingkan keanekaragaman herpetofauna, serta menduga faktor-faktor lingkungan yang menentukan kehadiran herpetofauna pada pada berbagai tipe habitat di Taman Nasional Kutai. Pengamatan dilakukan menggunakan metode Visual Encounter Survey (VES) berdasarkan waktu yang dikombinasikan dengan jalur transek di mangrove, hutan dataran rendah, hutan kerangas, dan hutan rawa. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 28 jenis reptil dari 9 famili serta 22 jenis amfibi yang berasal dari 6 famili. Hutan dataran rendah memiliki keanekaragaman serta kekayaan tertinggi (H’reptil =2,43; H’amfibi = 2,63). Kesamaan jenis antara empat tipe habitat sangat rendah yang menunjukkan bahwa setiap tipe habitat hanya mendukung jenis tertentu. Faktor lingkungan yang dominan memengaruhi kehadiran jenis-jenis reptil di jalur akuatik adalah kecepatan arus air, pH air, dan intensitas cahaya, sedangkan faktor lingkungan yang memengaruhi di jalur terestrial adalah ketebalan serasah, tutupan tajuk pohon, dan jarak jalur ke sumber air. Untuk amfibi, faktor dominan yang paling berperan dalam kehadiran jenis, yaitu kelembaban relatif (jalur terestrial) dan keberadaan substrat batu (jalur akuatik)

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    a) Unrooted neighbour-joining tree and b) an UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) cluster dendrogram showing genetic relationships between the four proposed lines (IR83484-3-B-7-1-1-1: BRRI dhan97, BR9011-67-4-1: BRRI dhan98, HHZ5-DT20-DT2-DT1: BRRI dhan99, HHZ12-SAL2-Y3-Y2 and three check varieties (BR26, BRRI dhan28, and BRRI dhan67) based on the 1K Rice Custom Amplicon assay or 1k-RiCA SNP markers. All four lines and three checks showed distinct molecular variations/differences among them. (PDF)</p

    The unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of genetic relationships among 127 inbred lines was calculated based on genetic distances according to the Tamura-Nei model (1993).

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    The unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of genetic relationships among 127 inbred lines was calculated based on genetic distances according to the Tamura-Nei model (1993).</p

    Traditional Chinese Medicine formula Dai-Zong-Fang alleviating hepatic steatosis in db/db mice via gut microbiota modulation

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    Introduction: Hepatic steatosis is a hepatic pathological change closely associated with metabolic disorders, commonly observed in various metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), with a high global prevalence. Dai-Zong-Fang (DZF), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, is widely used in clinical treatment for MetS, exhibiting multifaceted effects in reducing obesity and regulating blood glucose and lipids. This study aims to explore the mechanism by which DZF modulates the gut microbiota and reduces hepatic steatosis based on the gut-liver axis.Methods: This study utilized db/db mice as a disease model for drug intervention. Body weight and fasting blood glucose were monitored. Serum lipid and transaminase levels were measured. Insulin tolerance test was conducted to assess insulin sensitivity. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was employed to observe morphological changes in the liver and intestine. The degree of hepatic steatosis was evaluated through Oil Red O staining and hepatic lipid determination. Changes in gut microbiota were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels were measured by ELISA. The expression levels of intestinal tight junction proteins, intestinal lipid absorption-related proteins, and key proteins in hepatic lipid metabolism were examined through Western blot and RT-qPCR.Results: After DZF intervention, there was a decrease in body weight, alleviation of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and mitigation of insulin resistance in mice. DZF significantly modulated the diversity of the gut microbiota, with a notable increase in the abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PICRUSt indicated that DZF influenced various functions in gut microbiota, including carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Following DZF intervention, serum LPS levels decreased, intestinal pathological damage was reduced, and the expression of intestinal tight junction protein occludin was increased, while the expression of intestinal lipid absorption-related proteins cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) were decreased. In the liver, DZF intervention resulted in a reduction in hepatic steatosis and lipid droplets, accompanied by a decrease fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2). Conversely, there was an increase in the expression of the fatty acid oxidation-related enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1).Conclusion: DZF can regulate the structure and function of the intestinal microbiota in db/db mice. This ameliorates intestinal barrier damage and the detrimental effects of endotoxemia on hepatic metabolism. DZF not only inhibits intestinal lipid absorption but also improves hepatic lipid metabolism from various aspects, including de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid uptake, and fatty acid oxidation. This suggests that DZF may act on the liver and intestine as target organs, exerting its effects by improving the intestinal microbiota and related barrier and lipid absorption functions, ultimately ameliorating hepatic steatosis and enhancing overall glucose and lipid metabolism