145,168 research outputs found

    El problema de la oligarqu铆a en la Pol铆tica de Arist贸teles

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    p. 69-95La oligarqu铆a es una de las seis formas de Estado y de gobierno que estudi贸 Arist贸teles en su Pol铆tica. La realidad social, pol铆tica e hist贸rica mostr贸 que era la forma de organizaci贸n pol铆tica m谩s frecuente. Arist贸teles distingui贸 varios tipos de oligarqu铆as, estudi贸 c贸mo llegan a instaurarse, las causas de su degeneraci贸n y final extinci贸n. Las ideas de Arist贸teles tuvieron una amplia influencia entre los comentaristas de los siglos XIII a XVII, que optaron por considerar el r茅gimen olig谩rquico como una forma de Estado dominada por pocos o por ricos.S

    El Tratado de Niza: entre la consolidaci贸n de la Uni贸n Europea de Maastricht y el debate sobre el futuro de Europa

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    30 p谩ginasLas principales reformas introducidas en el Tratado de Niza incluyen las cooperaciones reforzadas, cuestiones institucionales y la ampliaci贸n del uso de mayor铆as calificadas. El sistema de cooperaciones reforzadas, introducido en el Tratado de Amsterdam, fue fortalecido en Niza y permitir谩 una integraci贸n m谩s r谩pida y profunda. La reforma institucional toc贸 el n煤mero de votos asignados en el Consejo Europeo, y la distribuci贸n de asientos en el Parlamento Europeo y en la comisi贸n. En cuanto a la Corte de Justicia, varias de sus caracter铆sticas podr谩n ser reformadas con el voto un谩nime del consejo en lugar de requerirse una Conferencia Intergubernamental. Ha habido cambios en la distribuci贸n de las competencias entre el Tribunal de Primera Instancia y la Corte de Justicia. Esta 煤ltima ser谩 integrada por un juez por cada Estado miembro, y trabajar谩 preferentemente en salas, y no en pleno como en el pasado.S

    Los sindicatos en Europa : v铆as de actuaci贸n

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    24 p谩ginasEste art铆culo indaga las posibilidades de actuaci贸n de los sindicatos en Europa a la luz de las facultades otorgadas por el legislador. La metodolog铆a a utilizar consiste en la adecuada para una investigaci贸n jur铆dica, esto es, la recopilaci贸n y posterior an谩lisis de las fuentes legales y jurisprudenciales existentes, as铆 como aquellos estudios doctrinales en la materia elaborados por los investigadores. De igual modo, proceder谩 examinar las sentencias de los 贸rganos jurisdiccionales en la materia, as铆 como las publicaciones doctrinales, monograf铆as y art铆culos respecto a este tema. En cuanto a las conclusiones obtenidas, la creaci贸n de un verdadero espacio negocial a nivel comunitario precisa de un apoyo m谩s decidido a las organizaciones obreras y empresariales a trav茅s de la formulaci贸n de unas reglas procedimentales que otorguen eficacia al resultado de la negociaci贸n.S

    Review of the Concept of wu wei (鏃犱负): Its Relationship with Anarchism and Soft Power

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    鏈枃閫氳繃瀵逛腑鍥芥枃瀛︾殑涓嶅悓鍙ゅ吀鏂囨湰鐨 鍒嗘瀽锛屾棬鍦ㄥ鈥滄棤涓衡濈殑閬撴暀瑙傚康杩涜姊 鐞嗭紝骞跺皢鍏朵綔涓洪亾鏁欑殑鏀挎不瑙傚康涓庡綋鍓嶆棤鏀 搴滀富涔夌殑鍏崇郴杩涜杩戜技鍖栥傛枃绔犺璁轰簡閬撴暀 鎬佸害鍜屽熀鏈涓轰笌棰嗗涔嬮棿鐨勫叧绯伙紝浠ュ強浠 澶╃鐞嗗浗闄呭叧绯荤殑杞疄鍔涜蹇点備簡瑙e拰鍐 鍖栤滄棤涓衡濋瀵肩殑瀹氫箟鍜屽師鍒欙紝鍙互甯姪绀 浼氬舰鎴愭洿濂界殑闈㈠鍐茬獊鐨勯瀵艰咃細鐢ㄦ洿澶氱殑 鎬濊冨拰鑰愬績锛岄氳繃閬撴暀棰嗗绠$悊鍔涢噺鍜岃蒋瀹 鍔涳紝鏉ヨ幏寰椾笘鐣岀殑骞宠 涓庡拰璋愩 Through the analysis of different classical texts of Chinese literature, this article aims to carry out a review of the Taoist concept of wu wei and to make an approximation to the relationship between Taoism鈥檚 political conception and current anarchism. The article discusses, also from this review, the links between basic behavior and Taoist attitude and leadership and the concept of soft power that govern international relations today. Getting to understand and internalize the definition and principles of leadership wu wei, could help society to form leaders who face and manage conflicts better: with more reflection and patience and achieve, with a Taoist leadership management, of its strength and of its soft power, a more balanced and harmonious world

    La relaci贸n laboral especial de los discapacitados en los centros especiales de empleo

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    29 p谩ginasLa desigualdad de situaci贸n en que se encuentran los discapacitados motiva que la Constituci贸n 鈥攅n cabal comprensi贸n de la igualdad que proclama como uno de los cuatro valores superiores de nuestro ordenamiento jur铆dico (art铆culo 1.1)鈥 inste a los poderes p煤blicos a llevar a cabo una pol铆tica de rehabilitaci贸n e integraci贸n de este colectivo, orden谩ndoles que los ampare especialmente para el disfrute de los derechos que el t铆tulo I de la CE reconoce a todos los ciudadanos (art铆culo 49 鈥攓uiz谩 el 芦m谩s relevante禄鈥), por ejemplo, el derecho al trabajo, la libre elecci贸n de la profesi贸n y oficio, la promoci贸n a trav茅s del trabajo y a una remuneraci贸n suficiente (art铆culo 35.1 de la CE), en inequ铆voco mandato de que han de recibir un trato de favor (o discriminaci贸n positiva, en la no muy afortunada expresi贸n actualmente en boga) que permita compensar las dificultades derivadas de su propia peculiaridad.S

    La mujer en el mercado laboral = Woman in labour market

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    El estudio sometido a consideraci贸n del tribunal construye por aluvi贸n distintas im谩genes de la mujer en el mercado de trabajo. No aspira, por tanto, m谩s que a dejar una noticia hilvanada de algunos aspectos se帽eros que conducen a su postergaci贸n en la actualidad. El repaso lleva, de esta manera, a preocuparse por una formaci贸n desvinculada de los intereses empresariales, la falta de contundencia en los apoyos directos e indirectos a su contrataci贸n, los s铆ntomas profundos de precariedad bajo la forma de temporalidad, parcialidad, ausencia de corresponsabilidad o cuanto conduce a un suelo pegajoso y a un techo de cristal que confinan su realizaci贸n como personas a partir de un trabajo digno. Concluye con uno de los aspectos m谩s salientes que pudiera encontrar el jurista, como es la protecci贸n legal del proceso de gestaci贸n en todos sus momentos; en particular, por su actualidad en los 煤ltimos tiempos, la valoraci贸n por la jurisprudencia del despido de las trabajadoras embarazadas

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    Identification of Hindbrain Neural Substrates for Motor Initiation in the hatchling Xenopus laevis Tadpole

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    Animal survival profoundly depends on the ability to detect stimuli in the environment, process them and respond accordingly. In this respect, motor responses to a sensory stimulation evolved into a variety of coordinated movements, which involve the control of brain centres over spinal locomotor circuits. The hatchling Xenopus tadpole, even in its embryonic stage, is able to detect external sensory information and to swim away if the stimulus is considered noxious. To do so, the tadpole relies on well-known ascending sensory pathway, which carries the sensory information to the brain. When the stimulus is strong enough, descending interneurons are activated, leading to the excitation of spinal CPG neurons, which causes the undulatory movement of swimming. However, the activation of descending interneurons that marks the initiation of motor response appears after a long delay from the sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the long-latency response is variable in time, as observed in the slow-summating excitation measured in descending interneurons. These two features, i.e. long-latency and variability, cannot be explained by the firing time and pattern of the ascending sensory pathway of the Xenopus tadpole. Therefore, a novel neuronal population has been proposed to lie in the hindbrain of the tadpole, and being able to 'hold' the sensory information, thus accounting for the long and variable delay of swim initiation. In this work, the role of the hindbrain in the maintenance of the long and variable response to trunk skin stimulation is investigated in the Xenopustadpole at developmental stage 37/38. A multifaceted approach has been used to unravel the neuronal mechanisms underlying the delayed motor response, including behavioural experiments, electrophysiology analysis of fictive swimming, hindbrain extracellular recordings and imaging experiments. Two novel neuronal populations have been identified in the tadpole's hindbrain, which exhibit activation patterns compatible with the role of delaying the excitation of the spinal locomotor circuit. Future work on cellular properties and synaptic connections of these newly discovered populations might shed light on the mechanism of descending control active at embryonic stage. Identifying supraspinal neuronal populations in an embryonic organism could aid in understanding mechanisms of descending motor control in more complex vertebrates

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life
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