37,549 research outputs found

    Chinese Open Instruction Generalist: A Preliminary Release

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    Instruction tuning is widely recognized as a key technique for building generalist language models, which has attracted the attention of researchers and the public with the release of InstructGPT~\citep{ouyang2022training} and ChatGPT\footnote{\url{https://chat.openai.com/}}. Despite impressive progress in English-oriented large-scale language models (LLMs), it is still under-explored whether English-based foundation LLMs can perform similarly on multilingual tasks compared to English tasks with well-designed instruction tuning and how we can construct the corpora needed for the tuning. To remedy this gap, we propose the project as an attempt to create a Chinese instruction dataset by various methods adapted to the intrinsic characteristics of 4 sub-tasks. We collect around 200k Chinese instruction tuning samples, which have been manually checked to guarantee high quality. We also summarize the existing English and Chinese instruction corpora and briefly describe some potential applications of the newly constructed Chinese instruction corpora. The resulting \textbf{C}hinese \textbf{O}pen \textbf{I}nstruction \textbf{G}eneralist (\textbf{COIG}) corpora are available in Huggingface\footnote{\url{https://huggingface.co/datasets/BAAI/COIG}} and Github\footnote{\url{https://github.com/FlagOpen/FlagInstruct}}, and will be continuously updated

    Cosmology with one galaxy? -- The ASTRID model and robustness

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    Recent work has pointed out the potential existence of a tight relation between the cosmological parameter Ωm\Omega_{\rm m}, at fixed Ωb\Omega_{\rm b}, and the properties of individual galaxies in state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. In this paper, we investigate whether such a relation also holds for galaxies from simulations run with a different code that made use of a distinct subgrid physics: Astrid. We find that also in this case, neural networks are able to infer the value of Ωm\Omega_{\rm m} with a ∼10%\sim10\% precision from the properties of individual galaxies while accounting for astrophysics uncertainties as modeled in CAMELS. This tight relationship is present at all considered redshifts, z≤3z\leq3, and the stellar mass, the stellar metallicity, and the maximum circular velocity are among the most important galaxy properties behind the relation. In order to use this method with real galaxies, one needs to quantify its robustness: the accuracy of the model when tested on galaxies generated by codes different from the one used for training. We quantify the robustness of the models by testing them on galaxies from four different codes: IllustrisTNG, SIMBA, Astrid, and Magneticum. We show that the models perform well on a large fraction of the galaxies, but fail dramatically on a small fraction of them. Removing these outliers significantly improves the accuracy of the models across simulation codes.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figure

    MERMAIDE: Learning to Align Learners using Model-Based Meta-Learning

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    We study how a principal can efficiently and effectively intervene on the rewards of a previously unseen learning agent in order to induce desirable outcomes. This is relevant to many real-world settings like auctions or taxation, where the principal may not know the learning behavior nor the rewards of real people. Moreover, the principal should be few-shot adaptable and minimize the number of interventions, because interventions are often costly. We introduce MERMAIDE, a model-based meta-learning framework to train a principal that can quickly adapt to out-of-distribution agents with different learning strategies and reward functions. We validate this approach step-by-step. First, in a Stackelberg setting with a best-response agent, we show that meta-learning enables quick convergence to the theoretically known Stackelberg equilibrium at test time, although noisy observations severely increase the sample complexity. We then show that our model-based meta-learning approach is cost-effective in intervening on bandit agents with unseen explore-exploit strategies. Finally, we outperform baselines that use either meta-learning or agent behavior modeling, in both 00-shot and K=1K=1-shot settings with partial agent information

    Sign Language Translation from Instructional Videos

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    The advances in automatic sign language translation (SLT) to spoken languages have been mostly benchmarked with datasets of limited size and restricted domains. Our work advances the state of the art by providing the first baseline results on How2Sign, a large and broad dataset. We train a Transformer over I3D video features, using the reduced BLEU as a reference metric for validation, instead of the widely used BLEU score. We report a result of 8.03 on the BLEU score, and publish the first open-source implementation of its kind to promote further advances.Comment: Paper accepted at WiCV @CVPR2

    Finding and Counting Patterns in Sparse Graphs

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    Hutong Neighbourhood Grammar: a procedural modelling approach to unravel the rationale of historical Beijing urban structure

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    Hutong neighbourhoods, composed of Chinese courtyard dwellings (Siheyuan), are historically and socially significant urban spaces that embody the traditional Chinese way of life and philosophy. As part of the national heritage, there is an increasing research interest in Hutong neighbourhoods, many of which are facing oblivion. This study presents a formal grammar for Hutong neighbourhood generation. This research investigates traditional principles of urban planning of ancient Beijing, based on examples on the historical map Qianlong Jingcheng Quantu, to derive the lost design rules. These rules are used to build up a procedural modelling framework, which reveals the development of Beijing's urban structure from the Yuan (1271–1368) to the Qing (1644–1911) dynasty. Our findings present a grammar incorporated into the procedural modelling framework to parametrically generate Hutong neighbourhoods, which replicates the morphological characteristics of historic cases. It contributes to the understanding of the generation of Hutong neighbourhoods. In support of heritage sustainability, this grammar can be implemented in a computational environment by visual scripting that enables the generation of new instances of Hutong neighbourhoods, both real and virtual

    Inovação, empreendedorismo e desenvolvimento económico em África: Uma abordagem pós-positivista e "topo da pirâmide" para Moçambique

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    Esta tese desenvolve uma investigação abrangente sobre o empreendedorismo africano, revisitando o seu quadro concetual tradicional e posicionando-o enquanto elemento fundamental das estratégias de desenvolvimento para a África Subsariana (ASS). Explorados os diferentes impactos do empreendedorismo de oportunidade e do empreendedorismo de necessidade na região, efetuou-se uma pesquisa sobre a situação dos vários países da ASS que participaram no Global Entrepreneurship Monitor na última década, com vista a compor o status quo hipotético do empreendedorismo regional, ao qual juntámos um estudo empírico original e com elementos metodológicos inovadores sobre a atividade empreendedora em Moçambique. O alcance das estratégias empreendedoras implementadas na ASS é avaliado através de um estudo dos polos africanos de inovação tecnológica e do empreendedorismo digital que neles tem vindo recentemente a emergir, a que juntámos um levantamento original do tech hub de Maluana. Por fim, a partir destes casos e de uma leitura política das opções económicas do estado moçambicano com impacto sobre o ecossistema empreendedor, desenvolve-se uma proposta de teoria da mudança, numa lógica pós-positivista, para suportar medidas de política pública desejáveis para a eclosão de um empreendedorismo de “topo da pirâmide” em Moçambique.This thesis develops a comprehensive investigation of African entrepreneurship, revisiting its traditional conceptual framework and positioning it as a fundamental element in development strategies for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Exploring the different impacts of opportunity entrepreneurship and necessity entrepreneurship in the region, an analysis was carried out on the situation of the various SSA countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in the last decade, with a view to composing the hypothetical status quo of the entrepreneurship in the region, to which we added an original empirical study with innovative methodological elements on entrepreneurial activity in Mozambique. The reach of entrepreneurial strategies implemented in the SSA is assessed through a study of the African tech hubs, or innovation hubs, and the digital entrepreneurship that has recently emerged there, to which we have added an original survey of the Maluana tech hub. Finally, based on these cases and on a political reading of the economic options of the Mozambican government with an impact on the entrepreneurial ecosystem, a proposal for a theory-of-change is developed, within a post-positivist approach, to support desired public policy measures for the emergence of a “top of the pyramid” entrepreneurship in Mozambique

    De Finetti's Theorem and Related Results for Infinite Weighted Exchangeable Sequences

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    De Finetti's theorem, also called the de Finetti-Hewitt-Savage theorem, is a foundational result in probability and statistics. Roughly, it says that an infinite sequence of exchangeable random variables can always be written as a mixture of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) sequences of random variables. In this paper, we consider a weighted generalization of exchangeability that allows for weight functions to modify the individual distributions of the random variables along the sequence, provided that -- modulo these weight functions -- there is still some common exchangeable base measure. We study conditions under which a de Finetti-type representation exists for weighted exchangeable sequences, as a mixture of distributions which satisfy a weighted form of the i.i.d. property. Our approach establishes a nested family of conditions that lead to weighted extensions of other well-known related results as well, in particular, extensions of the zero-one law and the law of large numbers
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