25,063 research outputs found

    The Nurturing Food Sovereignty from the Peripheral Side: the Village Law and the Soul of Agriculture in Rural Development in Indonesia

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    After the enactment of the Village Law, the opportunity for the village as the spearhead of food sovereignty is widely open and the Village Law is considered a soul for village development. Village’s main activities are agriculture, including the management of natural resources with the composition of the area as a place for rural settlements, government services, social services, and economic activities. Most of the population works in the primary sector, which has various challenges to reducing or even eliminating dependence on the global food market. Rural development and the orientation of village agricultural soul so far seem to go hand in hand but tend to be particular. This study aimed to study the primary sector of agriculture and food needs as the main political discourse with the subject of the village. The study was prepared using a qualitative methodology with secondary data and policy analysis. The political economy framework is used to see how far the potential and challenges ahead are toward Indonesia's food sovereignty, amidst the onslaught of neo-liberalism in the global food system. The findings show that Village Law seeks to restore the village's dignity so that it becomes an empowered village faced with the unpreparedness of village capacity

    Los derechos humanos de los niños, niñas y adolescentes su relación con la seguridad humana

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    This article aims to develop some ideas about children`s right to their security relationship from different dimensions to human security: economic, nourishment, health, environmental, political and personal. Likewise lens clearly differentiate clearly the concepts of both doctrines that we can find in Children doctrine, one that was developed until before the Rights Children Convention, so we refer to integral situation doctrine while at the other end we have comprehensive protection doctrine that underpins a whole dimension of rights, the child, girl and adolescent as a rights subject, promoting all rights that as people belong to them and seeking to strengthen with these as well the Convention principles, equality and non-discrimination, development and survival, children opinion and the best interest, at this point we will stop to analyze their concept from various views, doctrinal, academic and normative, gab about children best interests goes further a letterhead that use in different occupations and in job spaces to simulate an application, which simply has become an without sense and content argument. This article seeks to give more content to this concept from the views above, an interesting topic is attend to comparative law and to point out how other countries across different parts have the best interest treatment by verifying basically if their constitutions recognize them or only in a laws.El presente artículo pretende desarrollar algunas ideas sobre el derecho de niñez su relación con la seguridad desde las diversas dimensiones a la seguridad humana: económica, alimentaria, salud, ambiental, política y personal. Así también pretendemos en este artículo diferenciar con claridad objetiva los conceptos de las dos doctrinas que en materia de niñez podemos encontrar en la doctrina, la una que fue desarrollada hasta antes de la vigencia de la Convención Sobre Derechos de los Niños, nos referimos a la doctrina de situación integral mientras en el otro extremo tenemos a la doctrina de protección integral que sustenta toda una dimensión de derechos , el Niño , niña y adolescente como sujeto de derechos, promoviendo todos los derechos que como personas les pertenecen y buscando fortalecer con estos también los principios de la Convención, igualdad y no discriminación, desarrollo y supervivencia, opinión de los niños y niñas y el interés superior, en este punto nos detendremos analizar su concepto desde diversas ópticas, doctrinarias, académicas y normativas, hablar del interés superior de los niños y niñas es más allá de un membrete que usan en diversas profesiones y en espacios laborales para simular una aplicación, el mismo se ha vuelto simplemente una argumento sin sentido y sin contenido, este artículo busca dar mayor contenido a este concepto desde las visiones señaladas, un tópico interesante es atender al derecho comparado y señalar cómo los demás países de diversas partes tienen el tratamiento del interés superior verificando básicamente si sus constituciones las reconoce o sólo en una ley

    Direito Humano à Água Potável e Pobreza dos Povos Indígenas no Brasil: Uma Análise Crítica Interseccional

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    This paperaims to assess the tension between competing social markers of difference, specifically ethnicity and poverty, by adopting intersectionality as a critical analysis lens for human rights to evaluate whether a one-dimensional approach may contribute to a violation of human dignity. This qualitative research is undertaken by deductive method and is carried out through bibliographic study and document analysis. The paper dwelves on the issues raised by the "Human rights to drinking water and sanitation for indigenous peoples: situation and lessons from ancestral cultures" report, prepared by Pedro Arrojo Agudo and presented before the UN General Assembly, to analyze the context of Brazil's guarantees of access to drinking water for indigenous peoples as a public policy aimed at eradicating poverty in the country. It concludes that such right, since it is already recognized internationally, must also be introduced into the Brazilian legal order in order to create positive obligations for the Executive Branch to act towards its fulfillment. Nevertheless, it is also considered at the end that, within the current administration, the right to water would hardly be affirmed due to the (negative) government's position towards indigenous rights and the protection of the environment.A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar a tensão entre concorrentes marcadores sociais da diferença, especificamente raça-etnia e pobreza, a partir da adoção da interseccionalidade como lente crítico-analítica para os direitos humanos, sobretudo quando reveladora de violação à efetividade da dignidade humana decorrente de uma perspectiva unidimensional. De caráter qualitativo e a partir de uma análise bibliográfica e documental, a investigação toma como ponto central o relatório "Direitos humanos à água potável e ao saneamento de povos indígenas: situação e lições de culturas ancestrais", elaborado por Pedro Arrojo Agudo e apresentado perante a Assembleia Geral da ONU, para analisar o contexto de garantia de acesso à água potável aos povos indígenas por parte do Estado brasileiro enquanto política pública voltada à erradicação da pobreza no país.Conclui-se, ao final, que tal direito, uma vez que já reconhecido internacionalmente, também deve ser introduzido no ordenamento jurídico doméstico para criar obrigações positivas para o Poder Executivo atuar em seu cumprimento. No entanto, também se considera que,  em virtude do posicionamento da atual gestão, o direito à água dificilmente seria positivado devido à posição (negativa) do governo em relação aos direitos dos povos indígenas e à própria proteção do meio ambiente.&nbsp

    Planificación estratégica y gestión presupuestal del Gobierno Regional San Martín - 2022

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    El estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la relación entre la planificación estratégica y la gestión presupuestal del Gobierno Regional San Martín – 2022. Tipo de estudio fue básica, con diseño no experimental de nivel correlacional, la población y muestra estuvo conformada por 54 trabajadores, la técnica utilizada fue la encuesta y como instrumento los cuestionarios. Resultados: el nivel de planificación estratégica predominante fue “medio” en 51,9 % y el nivel de la gestión presupuestal predominante fue “medio” en 44,4%. Existe relación positiva muy alta y altamente significativa, entre las dimensiones conocimiento integral de la realidad (r=0.959; p=0.000), futuro deseado (r=0.964; p=0.000), políticas y planes coordinados (r=0.915; p=0.000) y seguimiento y evaluación para la mejora continua (r=0.974; p=0.000) del planeamiento estratégico con la gestión presupuestal. Se concluye que, existe correlación positiva moderada entre las variables planificación estratégica y la gestión presupuestal (p < 0.01) con grado de dependencia de 93.70%

    Vivencias y Percepciones de los adolescentes en conflicto con la ley penal que cuentan con el servicio de apoyo laboral del Centro Juvenil de Diagnóstico y Rehabilitación “Lima” del PRONACEJ - MINJUSDH y de la Línea de Acción de Justicia Juvenil Restaurativa - MP

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    En la presente investigación buscamos explorar las vivencias y percepciones de los adolescentes, que siendo infractores de la ley penal, han sido beneficiarios con un servicio de apoyo laboral. Estos adolescentes se constituyen en la unidad de análisis del presente estudio, adicionalmente la información recogida ha sido complementada y confrontada con el recojo de información de los actores del servicio de apoyo laboral a los adolescentes para la consecución de su reinserción social. Se ha utilizado la metodología del estudio de caso, recogiéndose dos experiencias: una proveniente del Programa de Egresados e Inserción Laboral del PRONACEJ del Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos, que se ejecuta en el CJDR de “Lima” y la otra, de la Línea de Acción de la Justicia Juvenil Restaurativa (JJR) del Ministerio Público, que se ejecuta en el distrito fiscal del Lima y el Agustino, ambas ubicadas en la ciudad de Lima. Sobre el particular, se ha buscado conocer su proceso de intervención, desde lo indicado por los propios beneficios, lo que ha sido complementado con entrevistas y la evaluación final de los ejecutores. Ambas intervenciones tienen como mira utilizar estrategias de inserción laboral para el desistimiento de la infracción a la ley penal y por lo tanto, para su reinserción sociofamiliar. Entre los principales hallazgos se identifica que los adolescentes tienen una valoración positiva de la oportunidad laboral formal brindada, éstos destacan que los aprendizajes de la experiencia les resultan de utilidad para su futura actividad prosocial, y asimismo, se verifica como esta oportunidad laboral impacta positivamente en la construcción de una identidad alternativa a la delincuencial, sin embargo se hace necesario brindarles un aprendizaje sustentado en un enfoque de derecho, y en la experimentación de dinámicas de interacción favorables a la construcción de ciudadanía. Así también, se requiere gestar la estrategia desde perspectivas más articuladas y técnicas, a fin de lograr la consecución de los objetivos, y en donde los distintos actores identifiquen su rol en los procesos que favorecen al desistimiento de la conducta de infracción a la ley penal. Para dicho efecto, la gerencia social permite identificar y analizar los procesos, que permitan plantear recomendaciones y mejoras en la intervención de estos programas con los adolescentes involucrados en trasgresiones a la ley pena

    China’s approach to international law and the Belt and Road Initiative - perspectives from international investment law

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    This dissertation examines China’s approach to international law. In order to do so, it compares the country’s stance on international dispute resolution in past and present times. After a first historical chapter outlining China’s changeable relationship with international adjudication, the thesis subsequently focuses on contemporary developments. The emphasis here is on international instruments and mechanisms that China uses to protect investments within the Belt and Road Initiative. This dissertation combines doctrinal analysis with concrete case studies and applies deductive as well as inductive methods. The study of the legal dimension of the initiative leads to the basic assumption that two coexisting regulatory complexes provide investment protection within the initiative. Accordingly, as a first complex, the dissertation analyses China’s design of investment protection treaties and China’s stance in the reform debate on the future of in-vestment arbitration. As an outcome, the analysis claims that even though the first complex does not relate specifically to the Belt and Road Initiative, this complex nevertheless has inextricable links to China’s approach in the initiative’s context. Soft law documents, which China has concluded with both state and non-state actors, and informal mechanisms of dispute resolution form the second regulatory complex. The study investigates their functions for investment protection in the Belt and Road Initiative. In an overall view of the two regulatory complexes, this dissertation finds that China uses strictly legal and rather political methods for investment protection. In the synopsis of this result with the findings obtained from the historical part, the study concludes that China follows a realist approach to international law

    Preferentialism and the conditionality of trade agreements. An application of the gravity model

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    Modern economic growth is driven by international trade, and the preferential trade agreement constitutes the primary fit-for-purpose mechanism of choice for establishing, facilitating, and governing its flows. However, too little attention has been afforded to the differences in content and conditionality associated with different trade agreements. This has led to an under-considered mischaracterisation of the design-flow relationship. Similarly, while the relationship between trade facilitation and trade is clear, the way trade facilitation affects other areas of economic activity, with respect to preferential trade agreements, has received considerably less attention. Particularly, in light of an increasingly globalised and interdependent trading system, the interplay between trade facilitation and foreign direct investment is of particular importance. Accordingly, this thesis explores the bilateral trade and investment effects of specific conditionality sets, as established within Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Chapter one utilises recent content condition-indexes for depth, flexibility, and constraints on flexibility, established by Dür et al. (2014) and Baccini et al. (2015), within a gravity framework to estimate the average treatment effect of trade agreement characteristics across bilateral trade relationships in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) from 1948-2015. This chapter finds that the composition of a given ASEAN trade agreement’s characteristic set has significantly determined the concomitant bilateral trade flows. Conditions determining the classification of a trade agreements depth are positively associated with an increase to bilateral trade; hereby representing the furthered removal of trade barriers and frictions as facilitated by deeper trade agreements. Flexibility conditions, and constraint on flexibility conditions, are also identified as significant determiners for a given trade agreement’s treatment effect of subsequent bilateral trade flows. Given the political nature of their inclusion (i.e., the appropriate address to short term domestic discontent) this influence is negative as regards trade flows. These results highlight the longer implementation and time frame requirements for trade impediments to be removed in a market with higher domestic uncertainty. Chapter two explores the incorporation of non-trade issue (NTI) conditions in PTAs. Such conditions are increasing both at the intensive and extensive margins. There is a concern from developing nations that this growth of NTI inclusions serves as a way for high-income (HI) nations to dictate the trade agenda, such that developing nations are subject to ‘principled protectionism’. There is evidence that NTI provisions are partly driven by protectionist motives but the effect on trade flows remains largely undiscussed. Utilising the Gravity Model for trade, I test Lechner’s (2016) comprehensive NTI dataset for 202 bilateral country pairs across a 32-year timeframe and find that, on average, NTIs are associated with an increase to bilateral trade. Primarily this boost can be associated with the market access that a PTA utilising NTIs facilitates. In addition, these results are aligned theoretically with the discussions on market harmonisation, shared values, and the erosion of artificial production advantages. Instead of inhibiting trade through burdensome cost, NTIs are acting to support a more stable production and trading environment, motivated by enhanced market access. Employing a novel classification to capture the power supremacy associated with shaping NTIs, this chapter highlights that the positive impact of NTIs is largely driven by the relationship between HI nations and middle-to-low-income (MTLI) counterparts. Chapter Three employs the gravity model, theoretically augmented for foreign direct investment (FDI), to estimate the effects of trade facilitation conditions utilising indexes established by Neufeld (2014) and the bilateral FDI data curated by UNCTAD (2014). The resultant dataset covers 104 countries, covering a period of 12 years (2001–2012), containing 23,640 observations. The results highlight the bilateral-FDI enhancing effects of trade facilitation conditions in the ASEAN context, aligning itself with the theoretical branch of FDI-PTA literature that has outlined how the ratification of a trade agreement results in increased and positive economic prospect between partners (Medvedev, 2012) resulting from the interrelation between trade and investment as set within an improving regulatory environment. The results align with the expectation that an enhanced trade facilitation landscape (one in which such formalities, procedures, information, and expectations around trade facilitation are conditioned for) is expected to incentivise and attract FDI

    Wildlife trade in Latin America: people, economy and conservation

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    Wildlife trade is among the main threats to biodiversity conservation and may pose a risk to human health because of the spread of zoonotic diseases. To avoid social, economic and environmental consequences of illegal trade, it is crucial to understand the factors influencing the wildlife market and the effectiveness of policies already in place. I aim to unveil the biological and socioeconomic factors driving wildlife trade, the health risks imposed by the activity, and the effectiveness of certified captive-breeding as a strategy to curb the illegal market in Latin America through a multidisciplinary approach. I assess socioeconomic correlates of the emerging international trade in wild cat species from Latin America using a dataset of >1,000 seized cats, showing that high levels of corruption and Chinese private investment and low income per capita were related to higher numbers of jaguar seizures. I assess the effectiveness of primate captive-breeding programmes as an intervention to curb wildlife trafficking. Illegal sources held >70% of the primate market share. Legal primates are more expensive, and the production is not sufficiently high to fulfil the demand. I assess the scale of the illegal trade and ownership of venomous snakes in Brazil. Venomous snake taxa responsible for higher numbers of snakebites were those most often kept as pets. I uncover how online wildlife pet traders and consumers responded to campaigns associating the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of 20,000 posts on Facebook groups, only 0.44% mentioned COVID-19 and several stimulated the trade in wild species during lockdown. Despite the existence of international and national wildlife trade regulations, I conclude that illegal wildlife trade is still an issue that needs further addressing in Latin America. I identify knowledge gaps and candidate interventions to amend the current loopholes to reduce wildlife trafficking. My aspiration with this thesis is to provide useful information that can inform better strategies to tackle illegal wildlife trade in Latin America

    Ethical Behavior of Firms and B2C E-commerce Diffusion: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Customer Orientation and Innovation Capacity

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    Despite the increasing significance of IT innovations and corporate ethics, we lack research that has investigated whether and how the extent to which firms in a country behave in an ethical manner relates to the rate at which B2C e-commerce diffuses among them. Drawing on the ethical climate theory, the stakeholder theory, and the resource-based view of the firm, we posit that firms’ ethical behavior positively relates to B2C e-commerce diffusion and that their customer orientation and innovation capacity will mediate the relationship. We validated our research model using publicly available archival data from 128 countries. Our findings suggest that 1) ethical conduct leads to higher B2C e-commerce diffusion among a country’s firms, and 2) customer orientation and innovation capacity serve as the underlying mechanisms that explain this relationship. We discuss crucial implications for research and practice
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