65,381 research outputs found

    Revalorizando el bosque seco de algarrobo : estudio y an谩lisis de la biodiversidad, distribuci贸n y conservaci贸n de los bosques secos en Lambayeque

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    En nuestro planeta, gran parte del 谩rea continental ha estado cubierta de bosques por millones de a帽os. En el Per煤, tanto la costa, la sierra como la selva poseen grandes bosques, que en conjunto ocupan el 51% del territorio. Los bosques secos son ecosistemas caracter铆sticos de la costa norte peruana, siendo su especie clave el algarrobo (Prosopis pallida), la cual que no solo representa un valor ecol贸gico sino tambi茅n econ贸mico para las comunidades aleda帽as a dichos ecosistemas. Esta investigaci贸n se centra en los bosques de Lambayeque, siendo definidos como representaciones de bosques secos de algarrobo los que se ubican en el Santuario Hist贸rico Bosque de P贸mac, el ACP Chaparr铆 y el ACR Huacrupe La Calera. Actualmente, es evidente que los procesos de deforestaci贸n son las causas m谩s fuertes de la reducci贸n de muchas especies forestales. Esto en conjunto con los bruscos cambios de uso de suelo, los incendios forestales de origen antr贸pico y el cambio clim谩tico vienen afectando a las comunidades humanas y muchas poblaciones de especies animales y vegetales. Una de las especies que se ve amenazada por estos factores es, precisamente, el algarrobo, por lo que su conservaci贸n junto al ecosistema de bosque seco en su plenitud es prioritaria. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta tesis es identificar y plantear qu茅 estrategias son las m谩s adecuadas para conservar y gestionar los bosques secos de manera integrada, de manera que se valoricen los recursos y servicios que ofrecen estos ecosistemas. Se trabaj贸 una metodolog铆a basada en biogeograf铆a de la conservaci贸n, la cual incluy贸 m茅todos de modelamiento de distribuci贸n de especies (MDE), sensores remotos y sistemas de informaci贸n geogr谩fica (SIG). Se utiliz贸 el software Maxent, un programa de modelamiento basado en el principio de m谩xima entrop铆a, para obtener la distribuci贸n potencial presente del algarrobo, as铆 como la distribuci贸n potencial futura (para el a帽o 2050) bajo dos escenarios RCP 2,6 y 8,5, resultando en un inesperado aumento en la potencialidad del norte peruano para albergar la especie. Para conocer la din谩mica de los bosques secos en cuanto a cambios en cobertura vegetal, frecuencia de incendios y fragmentaci贸n del paisaje se utilizaron herramientas SIG y de teledetecci贸n (como el NDVI) para realizar un an谩lisis espacial y multitemporal, dando como resultado variaciones en la cobertura vegetal, pero que tienden a la reducci贸n de la vegetaci贸n hacia los 煤ltimos a帽os. Adem谩s, se evidencia una ampliaci贸n de la frontera agr铆cola debido principalmente a la deforestaci贸n. Por otra parte, no se puede omitir el rol de los eventos del ENSO en una zona como esta, pues sus efectos influyen en la regeneraci贸n de sus bosques. El trabajo de campo consisti贸 en dos partes esenciales: en primer lugar, obtener el 铆ndice de valor de importancia (IVI) del algarrobo en el bosque seco. El m茅todo de muestreo realizado fue el punto 鈥 centro 鈥 cuadrado, obteniendo un valor de 53,01 para el algarrobo, adem谩s de conocer la composici贸n flor铆stica del bosque, tomando como referencia principal el ACR Huacrupe. En segundo lugar, se aplicaron encuestas y entrevistas a actores clave, guardaparques y a la poblaci贸n local, quienes confirmaron la importancia de la especie para el mantenimiento de los bosques secos y como aporte y hasta sustento econ贸mico de diversas comunidades, as铆 como la preocupante situaci贸n de la deforestaci贸n, principalmente ilegal para fines comerciales, degradaci贸n y continua reducci贸n de los 谩rboles de algarrobo.On our planet, much of the continental area has been forested for millions of years. In Peru, the coast, highlands and jungle, have large forests, which together occupy 51% of the territory. Dry forests are characteristic ecosystems of the northern coast of Peru, and its key species Prosopis pallida, which represents not only an ecological but also economic value to communities surrounding these ecosystems. This research focuses on the forests of Lambayeque, being defined as representations of dry forests of carob tree those located in the Pomac Forest Historical Sanctuary, the ACP Chaparr铆 and ACR Huacrupe La Calera. Currently, it is clear that deforestation is the strongest cause of the reduction of many forest species. This coupled with the rapid changes in land use, forest fires and climate change are affecting many human communities and populations of animals and plants. One species that is threatened by these factors is, precisely, carob tree, so conservation along the dry forest ecosystem in its fullness is a priority. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to identify and propose what strategies are most appropriate to conserve and manage the dry forests in an integrated manner so that resources and services offered by these ecosystems could be valorized. A methodology based on conservation biogeography, which included methods of species distribution modeling (MDE), remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS), was worked. The Maxent software, a modeling program based on the principle of maximum entropy, for the present potential of the carob tree distribution, and its potential future distribution (2050) under two scenarios RCP 2,6 and 8,5 was used, resulting in an unexpected increase in the potential of northern Peru to host the species. To understand the dynamics of dry forests in terms of changes in land cover, fire frequency and landscape fragmentation, GIS tools and remote sensing methods (such as NDVI) were used to perform a spatial and multi-temporal analysis, resulting in variations in coverage plant, but they tend to reduce the vegetation to recent years. Furthermore, there is a clear expansion of the agricultural frontier, mainly due to deforestation. Moreover, one cannot ignore the role of ENSO events in an area like this, since their effects influence the regeneration of forests. The field work consisted of two main parts. In first place, to obtain the importance value index (IVI) of the carob tree dry forest. The sampling method was the point 鈥 centered 鈥 quarter, obtaining a value of 53,01 for the carob tree, besides knowing the floristic composition of the forest, taking as main reference the ACR Huacrupe. In second place and finally, surveys and interviews with key players, park rangers and local people applied who confirmed the importance of the species to the maintenance of dry forests and as a contribution and economic support to various communities as well as the worrying situation of deforestation, illegal primarily for commercial purposes, habitat fragmentation, degradation and continuous reduction of carob trees.Tesi

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005鈥2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Contrastes del desarrollo humano en dos comunidades ind铆genas de Alto Paran谩, 2020

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    Esta investigaci贸n describe el Desarrollo Humano de la comunidad ind铆gena 鈥淢ak谩鈥 de Ciudad del Este que basa su econom铆a en la artesan铆a desenvolvi茅ndose en un contexto urbano, y de la comunidad ind铆gena 鈥淎caraymi鈥 de Hernandarias que se desenvuelve en un contexto rural dedic谩ndose al trabajo del campo en el sector agr铆cola, ambas de Alto Paran谩, Paraguay; contrastando las realidades de sus modos de vida en base a las tres dimensiones del desarrollo establecidas por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas (PNUD), cuyo an谩lisis incluye el nivel de vida digno, el acceso a conocimientos y el goce de una vida larga y saludable. Objetivo: Contrastar el Desarrollo Humano en las poblaciones de la Comunidad Ind铆gena 鈥樷橫ak谩鈥欌 de Ciudad del Este y la Comunidad Ind铆gena 鈥淎caraymi鈥 de Hernandarias, Alto Paran谩, Paraguay. La investigaci贸n ha adoptado procedimientos del m茅todo etnogr谩fico, bas谩ndose en entrevistas semiestructuradas de preguntas abiertas con un acercamiento concreto para dialogar con las autoridades debidamente constituidas de cada comunidad, adem谩s de conversaciones individuales y colectivas acompa帽adas de la observaci贸n participante. Es de car谩cter cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, a manera de recoger datos espec铆ficos y buscar una aproximaci贸n a la realidad del fen贸meno estudiado. Mediante el an谩lisis de los resultados se pudo percibir que ambas comunidades ind铆genas han demostrado resiliencia y capacidad de adaptaci贸n dentro de los escenarios en los cuales se desenvuelven, a pesar de que el crecimiento fue desordenado y sin proyecci贸n a futuro, que la ayuda estatal para con ellos es escasa e ineficiente, lo que representa una amenaza al s铆mbolo cultural que las comunidades ind铆genas representan en la sociedad paraguaya

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: insulation sector summary

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    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: hydrogen sector summary

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    Blackstar theory : the last works of David Bowie

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    Blackstar Theory dives deep into Bowie's ambitious last works: the surprise 鈥榗omeback鈥 project The Next Day (2013), the off-Broadway musical Lazarus (2015) and the album that preceded the artist鈥檚 death in 2016 by two days, 鈽 (pronounced Blackstar). The book explores the swirl of themes that orbit these projects from a starting point in musical analysis and features new interviews with key collaborators from the period: producer Tony Visconti, graphic designer Jonathan Barnbrook, musical director Henry Hey, saxophonist Donny McCaslin and assistant sound engineer Erin Tonkon. Together, these works tackle the biggest of ideas: identity, creativity, chaos, transience and immortality. Their themes entangle realities and fictions across space and time; a catalogue of sound, vision, music and myth spanning more than 50 years is subjected to the cut-up; we get to the end only to find signposts directing us back to the very start. They enact a process of individuation for the Bowie meta-persona and invite us to consider what happens when a star dies. In our universe, dying stars do not disappear - they transform into new stellar objects, remnants and gravitational forces. The radical potential of the Blackstar is demonstrated in the rock star supernova that creates a singularity resulting in cultural iconicity. It is how a man approaching his own death can create art that illuminates the immortal potential of all matter in the known universe

    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa鈥檚 Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived 鈥榩roblems鈥 with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n鈥=鈥27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the 鈥渢rips鈥 most often made; and respondents鈥 鈥渟ingle biggest problem with鈥 cycling鈥. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n鈥=鈥26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n鈥=鈥8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n鈥=鈥2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making 鈥榯rips鈥 during the preceding month (n鈥=鈥18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the 鈥渟ingle biggest problem with鈥 cycling鈥 by far the commonest was 鈥淒on鈥檛 know how to cycle鈥 (32.2%), less than half as many citing 鈥淰ehicle accident risk鈥 (15.9%), and fewer still: 鈥淒estination is too far鈥 (13.9%); 鈥淐rime鈥 (10.3%); 鈥淭oo much effort鈥 (9.2%); or 鈥淟ack of good paths鈥 (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the 鈥榯he trips most often made鈥 that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited 鈥淒on鈥檛 know how鈥 as the 鈥渟ingle biggest problem with鈥 cycling鈥; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle

    Cyber-threat landscape of border control infrastructures

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    Various events in recent decades, such as the 9/11 tragedy and the European migration crisis, have highlighted the critical nature of robust borders and the impact of associated attacks on their integrity. However, it is unclear as to the extent to which cyber-attacks can threaten border operations. Interestingly, no extensive research has been conducted into this topic, possibly due to the complexity and diversity of border controls. This paper specifies the cyber-threat landscape of border control infrastructures to assist professionals in assessing the relevant cybersecurity risks. Border control infrastructures are complex environments and relevant risks might not be easily identified. To investigate the cyber-threat landscape of these infrastructures, a mixed research method, combining qualitative and quantitative results, and using border-related expert interviews and risk analysis investigation was chosen. Key contributions of this work include the classification of a widespread set of border assets, the description of the profiles of threat actors and their potential synergies, the specification of a threat taxonomy applicable to all border types, and the identification of potential areas of vulnerability. Moreover, through the risk analysis investigations, exemplary input is developed to guide professionals while applying a risk assessment methodology in the context of border control infrastructures. The paper concludes with future directions addressed to policy makers and border professionals

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK鈥檚 Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK鈥檚 largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental 鈥榩erformance paradox鈥 in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them
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