24,322 research outputs found

    Small Axe and/as Cinematic Television

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    ÔÇťThese are cinema. These are films that happen to be on TVÔÇŁ Steve McQueen said of his Small Axe series, broadcast on BBC One in November and December 2020. That McQueen had to make this statement speaks to the rhetorical divergence between cinema and television that is becoming increasingly unsustainable in a converged industrial context. In a year in which cinema closures forced film viewing to largely take place in the home, the category confusion over Small Axe (BBC One/Amazon Studios, 2020) was perhaps inevitable. This paper will analyse Small Axe through the conceptual lens of medium specificity, focusing particularly on the contested concept of ÔÇścinematic televisionÔÇÖ. The term ÔÇścinematicÔÇÖ when applied to television has generally been understood as an expression of cultural hierarchy, where dramas with ÔÇścinematicÔÇÖ aesthetics are ÔÇślegitimatedÔÇÖ and acquire elevated cultural status (Newman and Levine, 2011). The promotion of Small Axe as an auteur-led project can be read as an attempt to legitimate the series in these terms. Yet, as Roshni Naidoo (2021) notes, its schedule position in the peak time Sunday evening slot favoured in the UK for prestige television drama, is a profoundly televisual gesture of reclamation on behalf of an audience that historically has been underserved, misrepresented, and marginalised by British broadcasters (Malik, 2017). Recent work by Jonathan Gray and Derek Johnson (2021), and Rashna Wadia Richards (2021) has attempted to deepen and complicate definitions of ÔÇścinematic televisionÔÇÖ drawing on theorisations of media convergence and intertextuality. These analyses of cinematic television respond specifically to American texts, leaving a gap in understanding of how cinematic television emerges in other national contexts. This discussion of the Small Axe series will therefore consider the longer history of convergence between cinema and television in the UK (Andrews, 2014). This chapter will combine analysis of this context of aesthetic and industrial convergence with a discussion of affect-driven (post-)cinematic aesthetics (Shaviro, 2010, Restivo 2019). It will evaluate the ways the Small Axe films appropriate cinematic forms of affect for television. Through analysis of mise en scene, editing and sound design, it will examine how a cinematic ÔÇśfeelÔÇÖ is created in these dramas. Applying theorisations of affect and blackness (Ashley and Billies, 2017, 2020; Palmer, 2017), it will argue that the specificity of context is crucial to understanding the meaning and value of ÔÇścinematic televisionÔÇÖ. This novel synthesis of (black) affect theory with medium specificity analysis will attempt to make sense of McQueenÔÇÖs assertion that he partnered with the BBC ÔÇťbecause I wanted my mother to see these stories on TV.ÔÇŁ It will consider how Small Axe represents a fusion of cinematic aesthetics and affect with televisual access and address, attending to the specificity of representation of, access for, and address to a black British audience

    Deliberative Democracy, Perspective from Indo-Pacific Blogosphere: A Survey

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    Deliberation and communication within the national space have had numerous implications on how citizens online and offline perceive government. It has also impacted the relationship between opposition and incumbent governments in the Indo-Pacific region. Authoritarian regimes have historically had control over the dissemination of information, thereby controlling power and limiting challenges from citizens who are not comfortable with the status quo. Social media and blogs have allowed citizens of these countries to find a way to communicate, and the exchange of information continues to rise. The quest by both authoritarian and democratic regimes to control or influence the discussion in the public sphere has given rise to concepts like cybertroopers, congressional bloggers, and commentator bloggers, among others. Cybertroopers have become the de facto online soldiers of authoritarian regimes who must embrace democracy. While commentator and congressional bloggers have acted with different strategies, commentator bloggers educate online citizens with knowledgeable information to influence the citizens. Congressional bloggers are political officeholders who use blogging to communicate their positions on ongoing national issues. Therefore, this work has explored various concepts synonymous with the Indo-Pacific public sphere and how it shapes elections and democracy

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Text world creation in advertising discourse

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    This article explores the way in which text worlds are created in advertising discourse by analysing linguistic choices and features of context which are crucial in the determination of specific relations between sender(s) and target audience(s), in particular, deixis and frame knowledge. The argument is that a text world model is particularly adequate for the description of the way in which advertising discourse is processed in an active, dynamic, context-dependent way. In this process, addressees reconstruct the world projected in the discourse according to their own cultural and personal knowledge from the linguistic and visual clues provided in the advertisement

    Translation and reception of Chinese literature in Italy: problems and strategies in the translation of novels by Su Tong, Yu Hua, Zhang Jie and Mo Yan

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    Negli ultimi anni, in Italia sono stati tradotti un gran numero di opere letterarie cinesi grazie allÔÇÖimpegno e alla passione di numerosi sinologi, studiosi e traduttori italiani. Tuttavia, gli studi sulla traduzione della letteratura cinese sono, sia in Cina che in Italia, relativamente pochi e non sempre uniformi: in Cina ├Ę difficile trovare dati completi, sistematici e dotati di un certo valore di riferimento, e in Italia, una ricerca di questo tipo ha avuto origine nellÔÇÖambito degli studi sinologici italiani, piuttosto che in quello degli studi sulla traduzione. A partire da una rassegna dei principali approcci agli studi sulla traduzione (letteraria) dalla seconda met├á del XX secolo fino ai nostri giorni, questo lavoro di tesi tenta di analizzare da un lato le tendenze generali relative alla traduzione e alla pubblicazione delle opere letterarie cinesi in Italia in un arco temporale che va dal 1942 al 2018, tramite alcune analisi di tipo sia quantitativo che qualitativo basate su una tabella di dati concernenti la letteratura cinese sul mercato editoriale italiano che ├Ę stata costruita appositamente; dallÔÇÖaltro, questa ricerca intende investigare le strategie utilizzate per tradurre i diversi riferimenti culturali riscontrati nel corpus di testi scelti e che sono stati suddivisi nelle seguenti categorie: antroponimi, intertestualit├á, riferimenti al contesto politico e culturale, gastronomia e altri riferimenti culturali. Attraverso unÔÇÖanalisi comparativa e descrittiva dei testi di partenza e dei testi di arrivo, ai fini della tesi si sono indagate le problematiche riguardanti la traduzione e la ricezione della letteratura cinese in Italia e le tendenze che tale letteratura ha avuto sia in ambito editoriale che nel campo della traduzione letteraria.In recent years, thanks to the commitment and passion of numerous Italian sinologists, scholars and translators, a large number of Chinese literary works have been translated into Italian. Nevertheless, literature on this subject is still scarce and dispersed either in China or in Italy. To illustrate, in China, merely limited data can be obtained, whilst in Italy, research address more on Italian sinological studies rather than on translation studies. So, the research aims to conduct a diachronic study on the general situation of the translation and publication of Chinese literary works in Italy, as well as a descriptive-comparative analysis concerning translation strategies and choices in the process of the translation of Chinese literature. The thesis begins with a review of main approaches to literary translation studies from the second half of the 20th century. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses based on a list of Chinese literary works in the Italian publishing market, this thesis attempts to analyze general trends related to the translation and publication of Chinese literary works in Italy from 1942 to 2018. Besides, the research also examines strategies used to translate different culture-specific references as can be found in the selected novels by Su Tong, Yu Hua, Zhang Jie and Mo Yan. These culture-specific references have been further divided into anthroponyms, intertextuality, words within political and cultural contexts, and gastronomy, etc. The result shows that from 1942 to 2018, the translation and publication of Chinese literary works in Italy experienced a conspicuous expansion, accompanied by important changes in the interest of Italian publishing market on authors, literary themes, translators and publishing houses, etc. Concerning the translation of culture-specific references, there is a great variety of translation strategies and choices, which are determined by multiple factors and in general indicate trends of maintaining or neutralizing the cultural strangeness

    ÔÇťWorld-beatingÔÇŁ Pandemic Responses: Ironical, Sarcastic, and Satirical Use of War and Competition Metaphors in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic

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    The COVID-19 pandemic tempted some governments to promise to wage ÔÇťwarÔÇŁ against it and implement ÔÇťworld-beatingÔÇŁ control mechanisms. In view of their limited success, such claims soon came in for massive criticism, which turned their hyperbolic implicatures and figurative framing against them. Our paper focuses on such cases of ÔÇťmetaphor reversalÔÇŁ within the context of the British public debate. Drawing on examples from a corpus of media texts, we identify several types of the dissociation, including irony (i.e., putting the figurative claimsÔÇÖ implicatures in doubt implicitly), sarcasm (i.e., explicitly decrying their plausibility) and satire (i.e., exhibiting their presumed absurdity), with reference to theory models of irony (echo, pretense, mental space structuring). In conclusion, we argue that the seesaw of exchanges between exaggerated figurative claims of (imminent) success made by government politicians and their sarcastic-satirical debunking by media and opposition politicians has an ambivalent effect on public discourse. On the one hand, it highlights contrasts in policy and policy assessment and may also have entertainment value, but on the other hand, it conveys experiences of repeated, serial exposure of hyperbolic government rhetoric. This in turn may lead to an erosion of trust in official communication as being unrealistic, which may foster beliefs in conspiracy theories

    The Disputation: The Enduring Representations in William Holman Hunt's ÔÇťThe Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,ÔÇŁ 1860

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    This interdisciplinary thesis problematizes the Jewish presence in the painting The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) by William Holman Hunt. This ÔÇťJewish presenceÔÇŁ refers to characters within the painting, Jews who posed for the picture and the paintingÔÇÖs portrayal of Judaism. The thesis takes a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to The Finding providing careful description and interpretation of what appears in the painting. It situates the painting within a newly configured genre of disputation paintings depicting the Temple scene from the Gospel of Luke (2:47 ÔÇô 52). It asks two questions. Why does The Finding look the way it does? And how did Holman Hunt know how to create the picture? Under the rubric of the first question, it explores and challenges customary accounts of the painting, explicitly challenging the over reliance upon F.G. StephensÔÇÖs pamphlet. Additionally, it examines Pre-Raphaelite and Victorian religious contexts and bringing hitherto unacknowledged artistic contexts to the fore. The second question examines less apparent influences through an analysis of the originary Lukan narrative in conjunction with the under-examined genre of Temple ÔÇťdisputationÔÇŁ paintings, and a legacy of scholarly and religious disputation. This demonstrates a discourse of disputation informing The Finding over and above the biblical narrative. In showing that this discourse strongly correlates with the paintingÔÇÖs objectifying and spectacular properties, this thesis provides a new way to understand The FindingÔÇÖs orientalism which is further revealed in its typological critical reworking of two Christian medieval and renaissance paintings. As a demonstration of the discourse, the thesis includes an examination of Jewish artists who addressed the theme of disputation overtly or obliquely thereby engaging with and challenging the assumptions upon which the disputation rests

    Alexander Craig: The most underestimated of all Scottish Writers?

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    This dissertation offers a re-evaluation of the poet Alexander Craig (1567-1627). Despite being considered a minor poet active during a fallow period in Scottish literature, he has received some share of critical attention. This attention has, in most cases, been directed at either The Amorose Songes, Sonets and Elegies (1606) or The Pilgrime and Heremite (1631). David LaingÔÇÖs collected edition of 1873 introduced the poetry but did not attempt a critical appraisal. The rediscovery of a second, manuscript, version of The Pilgrime and Heremite has rekindled interest in Craig. In her 2013 thesis, Lorna MacBean made the case for further study of Craig. This dissertation places him in the social and literary context of his time and evaluates all of his known work, teasing out literary continuities and development. It offers an understanding of the poet in and on terms comprehensible to him and his contemporaries. Identifying and applying historicised categories of interpretation enables a clear understanding of CraigÔÇÖs relevance in his own cultural context. It gives us sight of a Scottish author at the early Jacobean court who engaged with contemporary emphases in poetry and culture rather than those which posterity prioritised, and demonstrates how he transferred this approach to a more regional poetic after retiring to the north-east of Scotland. It reveals a poet whose wide reading and eclectic tastes defy modern categorisation

    Changing society: pioneering women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia.

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    The research examines the role of institutions influencing Saudi female entrepreneurs, and how they became enabled to be social agents and institutional entrepreneurs in a very traditional, family-orientated society - albeit facing pressures to change. In acknowledging the uniqueness of the social-cultural context in Saudi Arabia, this study adopts a qualitative design. Specifically, purposive and snowball sampling techniques were implemented to gather primary qualitative data. The data draw on 31 interviews with female entrepreneurs residing in Jeddah, capturing the practical experiences of these entrepreneurs, and their engagement with the informal and formal institutions of their immediate societal surroundings. The analysis relies on the constant-comparative method (Anderson and Jack 2015) to illicit the meanings and implications taken from context, and also how this informs the day-to-day activities of the entrepreneur (Anderson et al. 2012). This study has found that existing institutions both constrain and enable Saudi women's entrepreneurship. In particular, the obligations and responsibility of Arab families are turned into an advantage, in the form of a patient resource base or networks of knowledge development. We saw too how pioneering efforts, in conjunction with other change, have begun to modestly alter the opportunity structure in Saudi Arabia, with the entrepreneur acting as an agent of change. Saudi women's entrepreneurship is thus best characterised as a recursive process between these entrepreneurs and the social system, which is an essential resource for - and product of - situated actions. This research makes a modest contribution to the long-running discussions on women's entrepreneurship in the context of the Arab world. The findings cannot suggest that it is going to be easy or smooth for future women entrepreneurs; traditions continue and there are also vested patriarchal interests. Nonetheless, increasing numbers of Saudi women are involved in growing their businesses. These pioneers have changed society; a modest, but progressive change for the better. This study has several implications. First, the produced empirical findings have highlighted certain areas for further improvement of female entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia, which goes in keeping with Saudi Vision 2030 and the expected role of women in the social and economic development of Saudi Arabia. Second, this study has contributed to the existing body of knowledge and understanding of what institutional barriers and challenges Saudi female entrepreneurs face and how they could be overcome at a national level
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