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    Involvement of cyclic AMP in multiple, excitatory actions of biogenic amines on the cardiac ganglion of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus

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    Cyclic AMP appears to be involved in several excitatory actions of amines on neurones of the Limulus cardiac ganglion. Amines selectively increase levels of cardiac ganglion cyclic AMP with a magnitude and time course similar to that observed for amine-induced excitation of cardiac ganglion burst rate. With respect to either the physiological or biochemical effect, the apparent order of potency is octoparnine\u3eepinephrine==dopamine\u3enorepinephrine. Elevation of cardiac ganglion cyclic AMP levels by octopamine or dopamine is dose-dependent and is potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl 1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Several pharmacological agents which influence cyclic nucleotide metabolism, including forskolin, IBMX and 8-substituted cyclic AMP analogues, have amine-like effects on the Limulus cardiac ganglion. These effects include increased burst rate of the isolated cardiac ganglion and decreased burst duration, interburst interval and number of spikes per burst in follower neurones. Forskolin and IBMX increase levels of cardiac ganglion cyclic AMP, and IBMX also increases cyclic GMP levels in this tissue. Amines, forskolin and IBMX have direct effects on follower neurones pharmacologically isolated from pacemaker cell input. Octopamine, forskolin and IBMX depolarize follower neurones, while dopamine hyperpolarizes these cells. Amines, forskolin and IBMX elicit burst-like potentials in follower neurones, and increase the size of evoked, unitary junction potentials recorded in cardiac muscle fibres. These pharmacological and biochemical data suggest that multiple, excitatory effects of biogenic amines on the Limulus cardiac ganglion are mediated by simultaneous increases in cyclic AMP at several loci within this neural network

    The low KM-phosphodiesterase inhibitor denbufylline enhances neuronal excitability in guinea pig hippocampus in vitro

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    The actions of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor denbufylline on the excitability of hippocampal neurons were investigated by means of extracellular and intracellular recordings. Denbufylline, which has been shown to selectively inhibit a low KM, Ca2+/calmodulin-independent phosphodiesterase isozyme, concentration-dependently increased the amplitude of the extracellularly recorded CAI population spike evoked by electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway. Concentration-response-curves yielded an EC50 for denbufylline of 0.76 M. In comparison, the nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-lmethylxanthine (IBMX) also produced an increase in the amplitude of the population spike. From the concentration-response-curve, which was steeper than that of denbufylline, an EC50 for IBMX of 1.04 M was obtained. However, despite their similar EC50 values, denbufylline was found to be significantly more potent at lower concentrations (<- 300 nM) than IBMX. Intracellular recordings from CAI pyramidal cells revealed postsynaptic actions of denbufylline (300 nM) as indicated by a small drug-induced depolarization (2 – 5 mV) associated with an increase in membrane input resistance by 10–20%. In addition, denbufylline blocked the accommodation of trains of action potentials evoked by the injection of depolarizing current pulses. The results suggest i) that accumulation of adenosine-3,5-monophosphate (CAMP) in the postsynaptic cell and/or in the presynaptic terminal produced by blockade of phosphodiesterases leads to enhanced synaptic transmission in the CAI area of the hippocampus and ii) that a low KM, Ca 2+/calmodulin-independent cAMP-phosphodiesterase is an important component involved in the regulation of the intracellular cAMP level at synapses of central nervous system neurons

    Effects of extracellular Ca++, K+, and Na+ on cone and retinal pigment epithelium retinomotor movements in isolated teleost retinas.

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    We have examined the effects of changes in extracellular ionic composition on cone and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) retinomotor movements in cultured isolated teleost retinas. In vivo, the myoid portion of teleost cones contracts in the light and elongates in the dark; RPE pigment disperses in the light and aggregates in the dark. In vitro, cones of dark-adapted (DA) retinas cultured in constant darkness contracted spontaneously to their light-adapted (LA) positions if the culture medium contained greater than or equal to 10(-3)M Cao++. DA cones retained their long DA positions in a medium containing less than or equal to 10(-6)M Cao++. Low [Ca++]o (10(-5)-10(-7)M) also permitted darkness to induce cone elongation and RPE pigment aggregation. Light produced cone contraction even in the absence of Cao++, but the extent of contraction was reduced if [Ca++]o was less than 10(-3) M. Thus, full contraction appeared to require the presence of external Ca++. High [K+]o (greater than or equal to 27 mM) inhibited both light-induced and light-independent Ca++-induced cone contraction. However, low [Na+]o (3.5 mM) in the presence of less than or equal to 10(-6)M Cao++ did not mimic light onset by inducing cone contraction in the dark. High [K+]o also promoted dark-adaptive cone and RPE movements in LA retinas cultured in the light. All results obtained in high [K+]o were similar to those observed when DA or LA retinas were exposed to treatments that elevate cytoplasmic cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content

    Second messenger systems underlying amine and peptide actions on cardiac muscle in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

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    The biochemical mechanisms by which octopamine, catecholamines and the peptide proctolin exert their actions on Limulus cardiac muscle were investigated. Amines produced long-lasting increases in the amplitude of contractions evoked by electrical stimulation. At 10(−5) mol l-1, the apparent order of potency for amine-induced increases in evoked contraction amplitude was dopamine approximately equal to octopamine greater than norepinephrine approximately equal to epinephrine. At this dose, amines produced long-lasting increases in the levels of cyclic AMP (octopamine greater than dopamine approximately equal to norepinephrine approximately equal to epinephrine), but not of cyclic GMP, in Limulus cardiac muscle. Like the amines, the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin enhanced cardiac muscle contractility and increased levels of cyclic AMP, but not of cyclic GMP. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX produced a transient increase in cardiac muscle contractility, but typically produced long-lasting negative inotropy. This agent increased levels of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Limulus cardiac muscle. Proctolin and the protein kinase C activator phorbol dB increased the contraction amplitude of the intact heart and the electrically stimulated myocardium. These compounds, as well as dopamine, elicited sustained contractures and rhythmic contractions when applied to deganglionated Limulus cardiac muscle rings. Unlike the amines, proctolin and phorbol dB did not increase cardiac muscle cyclic AMP levels. These results suggest that several second-messenger systems may be utilized by amines and peptides to produce excitatory actions on cardiac muscle fibers of the Limulus heart. Cyclic AMP appears to be an important second messenger underlying the effects of amines to enhance cardiac muscle contractility. Pharmacological data suggest that proctolin may alter cardiac muscle contractility and excitability by a mechanism which involves the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Dopamine, unlike the other amines, produces a number of proctolin-like effects and may activate both the cyclic AMP and the phosphatidylinositol systems in Limulus cardiac muscle

    Mouse versus Rat: Profound Differences in Meiotic Regulation at the Level of the Isolated Oocyte

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    Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO), denuded oocytes (DO), or dissected follicles were obtained 44–48 hr after priming immature mice (20–23 days old) with 5 IU or immature rats (25–27 days old) with 12.5 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and exposed to a variety of culture conditions. Mouse oocytes were more effectively maintained in meiotic arrest by hypoxanthine, dbcAMP, IBMX, milrinone, and 8-Br-cGMP. Atrial natriuretic peptide, a guanylate cyclase activator, suppressed maturation in CEO from both species, but mycophenolic acid reversed IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in mouse CEO with little activity in rat CEO. IBMX-arrested mouse, but not rat, CEO were induced to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and amphiregulin, while human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was ineffective in both species. Nevertheless, FSH and amphiregulin stimulated cumulus expansion in both species. FSH and hCG were both effective inducers of GVB in cultured mouse and rat follicles while amphiregulin was stimulatory only in mouse follicles. Changing the culture medium or altering macromolecular supplementation had no effect on FSH-induced maturation in rat CEO. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, AICAR, was a potent stimulator of maturation in mouse CEO and DO, but only marginally stimulatory in rat CEO and ineffective in rat DO. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, blocked meiotic induction more effectively in hCG-treated mouse follicles and heat-treated mouse CEO. Both agents produced contrasting results on polar body formation in cultured CEO in the two species. Active AMPK was detected in germinal vesicles of immature mouse, but not rat, oocytes prior to hCG-induced maturation in vivo; it colocalized with chromatin after GVB in rat and mouse oocytes, but did not appear at the spindle poles in rat oocytes as it did in mouse oocytes. Finally, cultured mouse and rat CEO displayed disparate maturation responses to energy substrate manipulation. These data highlight significant differences in meiotic regulation between the two species, and demonstrate a greater potential in mice for control at the level of the cumulus CEO