67,560 research outputs found

    Tissue-specific network-based genome wide study of amygdala imaging phenotypes to identify functional interaction modules

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    Motivation: Network-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aim to identify functional modules from biological networks that are enriched by top GWAS findings. Although gene functions are relevant to tissue context, most existing methods analyze tissue-free networks without reflecting phenotypic specificity. Results: We propose a novel module identification framework for imaging genetic studies using the tissue-specific functional interaction network. Our method includes three steps: (i) re-prioritize imaging GWAS findings by applying machine learning methods to incorporate network topological information and enhance the connectivity among top genes; (ii) detect densely connected modules based on interactions among top re-prioritized genes; and (iii) identify phenotype-relevant modules enriched by top GWAS findings. We demonstrate our method on the GWAS of [18F]FDG-PET measures in the amygdala region using the imaging genetic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and map the GWAS results onto the amygdala-specific functional interaction network. The proposed network-based GWAS method can effectively detect densely connected modules enriched by top GWAS findings. Tissue-specific functional network can provide precise context to help explore the collective effects of genes with biologically meaningful interactions specific to the studied phenotype

    Enabling Privacy-Preserving GWAS in Heterogeneous Human Populations

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    The projected increase of genotyping in the clinic and the rise of large genomic databases has led to the possibility of using patient medical data to perform genomewide association studies (GWAS) on a larger scale and at a lower cost than ever before. Due to privacy concerns, however, access to this data is limited to a few trusted individuals, greatly reducing its impact on biomedical research. Privacy preserving methods have been suggested as a way of allowing more people access to this precious data while protecting patients. In particular, there has been growing interest in applying the concept of differential privacy to GWAS results. Unfortunately, previous approaches for performing differentially private GWAS are based on rather simple statistics that have some major limitations. In particular, they do not correct for population stratification, a major issue when dealing with the genetically diverse populations present in modern GWAS. To address this concern we introduce a novel computational framework for performing GWAS that tailors ideas from differential privacy to protect private phenotype information, while at the same time correcting for population stratification. This framework allows us to produce privacy preserving GWAS results based on two of the most commonly used GWAS statistics: EIGENSTRAT and linear mixed model (LMM) based statistics. We test our differentially private statistics, PrivSTRAT and PrivLMM, on both simulated and real GWAS datasets and find that they are able to protect privacy while returning meaningful GWAS results.Comment: To be presented at RECOMB 201

    Gene and Pathway-Based Analysis: Second Wave of Genome-wide Association Studies

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    Despite great success of GWAS in identification of common genetic variants associated with complex diseases, the current GWAS have focused on single SNP analysis. However, single SNP analysis often identifies a number of the most significant SNPs that account for only a small proportion of the genetic variants and offers limited understanding of complex diseases. To overcome these limitations, we propose gene and pathway-based association analysis as a new paradigm for GWAS. As a proof of concept, we performed a comprehensive gene and pathway-based association analysis for thirteen published GWAS. Our results showed that the proposed new paradigm for GWAS not only identified the genes that include significant SNPs found by single SNP analysis, but also detected new genes in which each single SNP conferred small disease risk, but their joint actions were implicated in the development of diseases. The results also demonstrated that the new paradigm for GWAS was able to identify biologically meaningful pathways associated with the diseases which were confirmed by gene-set rich analysis using gene expression data

    Unifying candidate gene and GWAS Approaches in Asthma.

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    The first genome wide association study (GWAS) for childhood asthma identified a novel major susceptibility locus on chromosome 17q21 harboring the ORMDL3 gene, but the role of previous asthma candidate genes was not specifically analyzed in this GWAS. We systematically identified 89 SNPs in 14 candidate genes previously associated with asthma in >3 independent study populations. We re-genotyped 39 SNPs in these genes not covered by GWAS performed in 703 asthmatics and 658 reference children. Genotyping data were compared to imputation data derived from Illumina HumanHap300 chip genotyping. Results were combined to analyze 566 SNPs covering all 14 candidate gene loci. Genotyped polymorphisms in ADAM33, GSTP1 and VDR showed effects with p-values <0.0035 (corrected for multiple testing). Combining genotyping and imputation, polymorphisms in DPP10, EDN1, IL12B, IL13, IL4, IL4R and TNF showed associations at a significance level between p = 0.05 and p = 0.0035. These data indicate that (a) GWAS coverage is insufficient for many asthma candidate genes, (b) imputation based on these data is reliable but incomplete, and (c) SNPs in three previously identified asthma candidate genes replicate in our GWAS population with significance after correction for multiple testing in 14 genes

    Coanalysis of GWAS with eQTLs reveals disease-tissue associations.

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    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), or genetic variants associated with changes in gene expression, have the potential to assist in interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). eQTLs also have varying degrees of tissue specificity. By correlating the statistical significance of eQTLs mapped in various tissue types to their odds ratios reported in a large GWAS by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC), we discovered that there is a significant association between diseases studied genetically and their relevant tissues. This suggests that eQTL data sets can be used to determine tissues that play a role in the pathogenesis of a disease, thereby highlighting these tissue types for further post-GWAS functional studies

    Solving Sequences of Generalized Least-Squares Problems on Multi-threaded Architectures

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    Generalized linear mixed-effects models in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) represent a formidable computational challenge: the solution of millions of correlated generalized least-squares problems, and the processing of terabytes of data. We present high performance in-core and out-of-core shared-memory algorithms for GWAS: By taking advantage of domain-specific knowledge, exploiting multi-core parallelism, and handling data efficiently, our algorithms attain unequalled performance. When compared to GenABEL, one of the most widely used libraries for GWAS, on a 12-core processor we obtain 50-fold speedups. As a consequence, our routines enable genome studies of unprecedented size
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