408 research outputs found

    Utilizing Astrometric Orbits to Obtain Coronagraphic Images

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    We present an approach for utilizing astrometric orbit information to improve the yield of planetary images and spectra from a follow-on direct detection mission. This approach is based on the notion-strictly hypothetical-that if a particular star could be observed continuously, the instrument would in time observe all portions of the habitable zone so that no planet residing therein could be missed. This strategy could not be implemented in any realistic mission scenario. But if an exoplanet's orbit is known from astrometric observation, then it may be possible to plan and schedule a sequence of imaging observations that is the equivalent of continuous observation. A series of images-optimally spaced in time-could be recorded to examine contiguous segments of the orbit. In time, all segments would be examined, leading to the inevitable detection of the planet. In this paper, we show how astrometric orbit information can be used to construct such a sequence. Using stars from astrometric and imaging target lists, we find that the number of observations in this sequence typically ranges from 2 to 7, representing the maximum number of observations required to find the planet. The probable number of observations ranges from 1.5 to 3.1. This is a dramatic improvement in efficiency over previous methods proposed for utilizing astrometric orbits. We examine how the implementation of this approach is complicated and limited by operational constraints. We find that it can be fully implemented for internal coronagraph and visual nuller missions, with a success rate approaching 100%. External occulter missions will also benefit, but to a lesser degree.Comment: 28 pages, 14 figures, submitted to PAS

    Species Differentiation Of Fish Samples By Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Of Cytochrome B Gene

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    Metode pengukuran polimorfisme fragmen hasil pemotongan produkreaksi polimorfik berantai oleh enzim restriksi spesifik (polymerase chainreaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP-PCR) telah digunakanuntuk membedakan beberapa jenis ikan mentah. Situs cytochrome b mitokondria,yang diamplifikasi oleh primer universal, dipotong menggunakan empat enzimrestriksi (Bfa I, Hinf I, Msp I, Mbo II) sehingga dapat dianalisa fragment-fragmentpendeknya. Hasil yang diperolah dari pemotongan oleh enzim restriksi tersebutternyata dapat digunakan untuk membedakan tiap jenis ikan sampel. Hasilpenelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa PCR dan RFLP-PCR merupakan metode yangsensitif dan dapat dilakukan dalam waktu singkat untuk membedakan berbagaijenis ikan mentah

    Delegating revocations and authorizations in collaborative business environments

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    Efficient collaboration allows organizations and individuals to improve the efficiency and quality of their business activities. Delegations, as a significant approach, may occur as workflow collaborations, supply chain collaborations, or collaborative commerce. Role-based delegation models have been used as flexible and efficient access management for collaborative business environments. Delegation revocations can provide significant functionalities for the models in business environments when the delegated roles or permissions are required to get back. However, problems may arise in the revocation process when one user delegates user U a role and another user delegates U a negative authorization of the role. This paper aims to analyse various role-based delegation revocation features through examples. Revocations are categorized in four dimensions: Dependency, Resilience, Propagation and Dominance. According to these dimensions, sixteen types of revocations exist for specific requests in collaborative business environments: DependentWeakLocalDelete, Dependent WeakLocalNegative, DependentWeakGlobalDelete, DependentWeakGlobalNegative, IndependentWeak LocalDelete, IndependentWeakLocalNegative, Inde pendentWeakGlobalDelete, IndependentWeakGlobal Negative, and so on. We present revocation delegating models, and then discuss user delegation authorization and the impact of revocation operations. Finally, comparisons with other related work are discussed

    Sidedness of reconstituted calcium channels from muscle transverse tubules as determined by D600 and D890 blockade

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    The verapamil-type calcium antagonist, D600, and its charged quaternary derivative, D890, were used to assess the sidedness of blockade in single calcium channels reconstituted from purified transverse tubules of skeletal muscle. Spontaneous single channel openings were induced with the agonist Bay-K8644 and recordings were made in a two-chamber planar bilayer setup so that drugs could be delivered to either side of the channel. Micromolar drug addition resulted in a greater than 10-fold decrease in probability of open channel events (po) without a significant change in single channel currents. Changes in po occurred in parallel with changes in mean open time and both parameters could be titrated with a similar IC50. At pH 7.2, cis or trans D600 blocked with an IC50 of 5 microM but for D890 the IC50 was cis 3 microM and trans greater than 75 microM (cis is the intracellular-equivalent side as defined by the voltage-dependent activation). The asymmetry of D890 blockade indicates that the drug can readily gain access to the blocking site from the aqueous phase adjacent to the inner but not extracellular end of the channel

    NCBI GEO: archive for high-throughput functional genomic data

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    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is the largest public repository for high-throughput gene expression data. Additionally, GEO hosts other categories of high-throughput functional genomic data, including those that examine genome copy number variations, chromatin structure, methylation status and transcription factor binding. These data are generated by the research community using high-throughput technologies like microarrays and, more recently, next-generation sequencing. The database has a flexible infrastructure that can capture fully annotated raw and processed data, enabling compliance with major community-derived scientific reporting standards such as ‘Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment’ (MIAME). In addition to serving as a centralized data storage hub, GEO offers many tools and features that allow users to effectively explore, analyze and download expression data from both gene-centric and experiment-centric perspectives. This article summarizes the GEO repository structure, content and operating procedures, as well as recently introduced data mining features. GEO is freely accessible at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/