58,487 research outputs found

    Simulation of benzene transport and biodegradation during transient hydraulic conditions

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    Thesis (M.S.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2000MODFLOW and BIOMOC were used to simulate transport and biodegradation of benzene in the alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Chena River. MODFLOW was used to calculate ground water fluxes at the boundaries of the BIOMOC model, which was used to model transport and biodegradation of benzene. A benzene plume located 300 ft. southeast of the study site is superimposed onto the cross-sectional model of the study area. Only saturated zone processes were modeled. Anaerobic biodegradation was the only simulated biodegradation process. The simulation shows 0.003% of the theoretical benzene entering the saturated zone is biodegraded, 0.6% is adsorbed by solids, and 99.4% leaves the model boundaries. The simulation predicts theoretical concentrations of benzene are 2 to 8 ug/l when discharging into the river. Field data do not support this finding. Processes not simulated, such as aerobic degradation at the water table, may make significant contributions toward limiting benzene transport

    Modeling the effect of soil meso- and macropores topology on the biodegradation of a soluble carbon substrate

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    Soil structure and interactions between biotic and abiotic processes are increasingly recognized as important for explaining the large uncertainties in the outputs of macroscopic SOM decomposition models. We present a numerical analysis to assess the role of meso- and macropore topology on the biodegradation of a soluble carbon substrate in variably water saturated and pure diffusion conditions . Our analysis was built as a complete factorial design and used a new 3D pore-scale model, LBioS, that couples a diffusion Lattice-Boltzmann model and a compartmental biodegradation model. The scenarios combined contrasted modalities of four factors: meso- and macropore space geometry, water saturation, bacterial distribution and physiology. A global sensitivity analysis of these factors highlighted the role of physical factors in the biodegradation kinetics of our scenarios. Bacteria location explained 28% of the total variance in substrate concentration in all scenarios, while the interactions among location, saturation and geometry explained up to 51% of it

    Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

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    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers

    Cloning and expression of first gene for biodegrading microcystins by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05

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    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) in natural waters are a growing environmental problem worldwide because microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are potent hepatotoxins and tumor promoters. MCs are resistant against physical and chemical factors. Thus, biodegradation is the most efficient method for removing MCs, and a number of bacterial strains, especially genus _Sphingomonas_, have been isolated for biodegrading MCs. Although the pathway, enzyme, and gene for biodegrading MCs by _Sphingomonas sp._ have been widely identified recently, no gene concerned with the biodegradation of MCs has been successfully cloned and expressed. In this study, we show that the first and most important gene of mlrA, containing 1,008 bp nucleotides in length, in the biodegradation pathway of MCs by _Sphingopyxis sp._ USTB-05, which encodes an enzyme MlrA containing 336 amino acid residues, is firstly cloned and expressed in _E. coli_ DH5α, with a cloning vector of pGEM-T easy and an expression vector of pGEX-4T-1. The encoded and expressed enzyme MlrA is responsible for cleaving the target peptide bond between 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid (Adda) and Arg in the cyclic structure of microcystin-RR (MC-RR)and microcystin-LR(MC-LR), two typical and toxic types of MCs. Linear MC-RR and MC-LR are produced as the first products. These findings are important in constructing a new genetic bacterial strain for the efficient removal of MCs from the important water supplies and resolving the controversy on the biodegradation pathway of different types of MCs by genus _Sphingomonas_

    Pollutants Biodegradation by Fungi

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    Revisión sobre los mecanismos de detoxificación de contaminantes por hongosOne of the major problems facing the industrialized world today is the contamination of soils, ground water, sediments, surfacewater and air with hazardous and toxic chemicals. The application of microorganisms which degrade or transform hazardous organic contaminants to less toxic compounds has become increasingly popular in recent years. This review, with approximately 300 references covering the period 2005-2008, describes the use of fungi as a method of bioremediation to clean up environmental pollutants

    Predicting the effects of biochar on volatile petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation and emanation from soil: a bacterial community finger-print analysis inferred modelling approach

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    We investigated the response of the dominant bacterial taxa in gravelly sand to the addition of biochar and/or mixtures of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of cut bands. Biochar addition alone had only weak effects on the soil bacterial community composition in batch study samples, while VPH addition had strong effects. Indirect effects of biochar on soil bacterial communities were apparent in column study samples, where biochar-enhanced sorption affected VPH spreading. Following VPH addition, cell abundance increased by no more than a factor of 2 and several Pseudomonas spp. became dominant in soil with and without biochar. We present a VPH fate model that considers soil bacterial biomass dynamics and a nutrient limited soil biomass carrying capacity. The model simulates an apparent lag phase before the onset of a brief period of intensive VPH biodegradation and biomass growth, which is followed by substantially slower VPH biodegradation, when nitrogen needs to be recycled between decaying and newly formed biomass. If biomass growth is limited by a factor other than the organic pollutant bioavailability, biochar amendment may enhance VPH attenuation in between a VPH source below ground and the atmosphere by reducing the risk of overloading the soil's biodegradation capacity
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