27,251 research outputs found

    PTH1R-CaSR Cross Talk: New Treatment Options for Breast Cancer Osteolytic Bone Metastases.

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    Metastatic breast cancer (BrCa) is currently incurable despite great improvements in treatment of primary BrCa. The incidence of skeletal metastases in advanced BrCa occurs up to 70%. Recent findings have established that the distribution of BrCa metastases to the skeleton is not a random process but due to the favorable microenvironment for tumor invasion and growth. The complex interplay among BrCa cells, stromal/osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the osseous microenvironment creates a bone-tumor vicious cycle (a feed-forward loop) that results in excessive bone destruction and progressive tumor growth. Both the type 1 PTH receptor (PTH1R) and extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) participate in the vicious cycle and influence the skeletal metastatic niche. Thus, this review focuses on how the PTH1R and CaSR signaling pathways interact and contribute to the pathogenesis of BrCa bone metastases. The effects of intermittent PTH and allosteric modulators of CaSR for the use of bone-anabolic agents and prevention of BrCa bone metastases constitute a proof of principle for therapeutic consideration. Understanding the interplay between PTH1R and CaSR signaling in the development of BrCa bone metastases could lead to a novel therapeutic approach to control both osteolysis and tumor burden in the bone

    Nationwide Study of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Latinas

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    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women. Any woman can be affected by breast cancer, with risk for the disease increasing with age. Risk for breast cancer is also exacerbated in women who have certain genetic alterations. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer, and are increasingly recognized in prostate and pancreatic cancers (1-3). In Caucasian and Asian ethnicities BRCA mutations are associated with basal-type/triple-negative disease. However this association between BRCA gene mutations and basal/triple-negative disease has been understudied in other ethnicities (4-6). The incidence and mortality of breast cancer of Hispanics and Native Americans are lower than other ethnicities; however they are underrepresented in epidemiological and clinical studies. Further, it is known that common recurrent mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes exist in Hispanic/Latino communities which account for 35-45% of mutation carriers (7, 8). The objective of our study is thus to investigate triple negative disease and BRCA gene mutations in Hispanic women

    PARP inhibition: a promising therapeutic target in ovarian cancer

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    Ovarian cancer is burdened by the highest mortality rate among gynecological cancers. Gold standard is represented by the association of platinum-taxane -based chemotherapy and radical surgery. Despite several adjustments occurred in cytotoxic drug in last decades, most patients continue to relapse, and no significant enhancement has been reached in the overall survival. The development of drug resistance and the recurrence of disease have prompted the investigations of other targets that can be used in the treatment of ovarian cancers. Among such targets, polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) represents a novel way to target specific patways involved in tumor growth. PARP accelerates the reaction of the polyADP-ribosylation of proteins implicated in DNA repair. PARP inhibitors have shown activity in cancers with BRCA mutations, with other deficient DNA repair genes or signaling pathways that modulate DNA repair, or in association with DNA damaging agents not involved in DNA repair dysfunction. A number of inhibitors for PARP has been developed, and such drugs are under investigation in clinical trials to identify their impact in the treatment of ovarian cancers. This review aims to summarize the recent researches and clinical progress on PARP inhibitors as novel target agents in ovarian cancer

    Nationwide Study of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Latinas

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    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women. Any woman can be affected by breast cancer, with risk for the disease increasing with age. Risk for breast cancer is also exacerbated in women who have certain genetic alterations. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer, and are increasingly recognized in prostate and pancreatic cancers (1-3). In Caucasian and Asian ethnicities BRCA mutations are associated with basal-type/triple-negative disease. However this association between BRCA gene mutations and basal/triple-negative disease has been understudied in other ethnicities (4-6). The incidence and mortality of breast cancer of Hispanics and Native Americans are lower than other ethnicities; however they are underrepresented in epidemiological and clinical studies. Further, it is known that common recurrent mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes exist in Hispanic/Latino communities which account for 35-45% of mutation carriers (7, 8). The objective of our study is thus to investigate triple-negative disease and BRCA gene mutations in Hispanic women

    Niraparib in ovarian cancer. results to date and clinical potential

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    Ovarian cancer is the first cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Germline mutation in BRCA1 and 2, two genes involved in the mechanisms of reparation of DNA damage, are showed to be related with the incidence of breast and ovarian cancer, both sporadic and familiar. PARP is a family of enzymes involved in the base excision repair (BER) system. The introduction of inhibitors of PARP in patients with BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer is correlated with the concept of synthetic lethality. Among the PARP inhibitors introduced in clinical practice, niraparib showed interesting results in a phase III trial in the setting of maintenance treatment in ovarian cancer, after platinum-based chemotherapy. Interestingly, was niraparib showed to be efficacious not only in BRCA-mutated patients, but also in patients with other alterations of the homologous recombination (HR) system and in patients with unknown alterations. These results position niraparib as the first PARP-inhibitor with clinically and statistically significant results also in patients with no alterations in BRCA 1/2 and other genes involved in the DNA repair system. Even if the results are potentially practice-changing, the action of niraparib must be further studied and deepened

    Rucaparib maintenance treatment for recurrent ovarian carcinoma after response to platinum therapy (ARIEL3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

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    Background: Rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has anticancer activity in recurrent ovarian carcinoma harbouring a BRCA mutation or high percentage of genome-wide loss of heterozygosity. In this trial we assessed rucaparib versus placebo after response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with high-grade, recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 hospitals and cancer centres across 11 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, had received at least two previous platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, had achieved complete or partial response to their last platinum-based regimen, had a cancer antigen 125 concentration of less than the upper limit of normal, had a performance status of 0–1, and had adequate organ function. Patients were ineligible if they had symptomatic or untreated central nervous system metastases, had received anticancer therapy 14 days or fewer before starting the study, or had received previous treatment with a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. We randomly allocated patients 2:1 to receive oral rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo in 28 day cycles using a computer-generated sequence (block size of six, stratified by homologous recombination repair gene mutation status, progression-free interval after the penultimate platinum-based regimen, and best response to the most recent platinum-based regimen). Patients, investigators, site staff, assessors, and the funder were masked to assignments. The primary outcome was investigator-assessed progression-free survival evaluated with use of an ordered step-down procedure for three nested cohorts: patients with BRCA mutations (carcinoma associated with deleterious germline or somatic BRCA mutations), patients with homologous recombination deficiencies (BRCA mutant or BRCA wild-type and high loss of heterozygosity), and the intention-to-treat population, assessed at screening and every 12 weeks thereafter. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01968213; enrolment is complete. Findings: Between April 7, 2014, and July 19, 2016, we randomly allocated 564 patients: 375 (66%) to rucaparib and 189 (34%) to placebo. Median progression-free survival in patients with a BRCA-mutant carcinoma was 16·6 months (95% CI 13·4–22·9; 130 [35%] patients) in the rucaparib group versus 5·4 months (3·4–6·7; 66 [35%] patients) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·23 [95% CI 0·16–0·34]; p<0·0001). In patients with a homologous recombination deficient carcinoma (236 [63%] vs 118 [62%]), it was 13·6 months (10·9–16·2) versus 5·4 months (5·1–5·6; 0·32 [0·24–0·42]; p<0·0001). In the intention-to-treat population, it was 10·8 months (8·3–11·4) versus 5·4 months (5·3–5·5; 0·36 [0·30–0·45]; p<0·0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or higher in the safety population (372 [99%] patients in the rucaparib group vs 189 [100%] in the placebo group) were reported in 209 (56%) patients in the rucaparib group versus 28 (15%) in the placebo group, the most common of which were anaemia or decreased haemoglobin concentration (70 [19%] vs one [1%]) and increased alanine or aspartate aminotransferase concentration (39 [10%] vs none). Interpretation: Across all primary analysis groups, rucaparib significantly improved progression-free survival in patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer who had achieved a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. ARIEL3 provides further evidence that use of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor in the maintenance treatment setting versus placebo could be considered a new standard of care for women with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer following a complete or partial response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy. Funding: Clovis Oncology

    Factors Influencing Uptake of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy by BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

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    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with significantly increased risks for ovarian cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) currently recommends that female BRCA mutation carriers undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) after age 35; however, not all women elect this option. The purpose of this study was to prospectively survey women with BRCA mutations currently undergoing ovarian cancer screening about their intention to have an RRSO and the various factors influencing their decision. Of the 26 women who completed our survey, 26 (100%, CI: 86.8-100) plan to undergo an RRSO in their lifetime. The average woman reported 6.7 motivations and 2.9 barriers to RRSO, indicating that in our population women tend to have more reasons for electing, rather than avoiding, this surgery. We further found that while most women appeared to share the same motivations for surgery, they often had unique barriers that were not common to others. The most important reasons in favor of surgery included a desire to reduce one’s risk for ovarian cancer and live longer for family members. The most important barrier to RRSO was fear of the symptoms related to menopause. We believe these results will assist healthcare providers when discussing the option of RRSO with BRCA mutation carriers undergoing ovarian cancer screening

    Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations

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    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Conclusion: Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn’t adversely affect shortterm psychological/quality-of-life outcomes and may detect 56% additional BRCA carriers
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