1,872 research outputs found

    Order and Change in Art: Towards an Active Inference Account of Aesthetic Experience

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    How to account for the power that art holds over us? Why do artworks touch us deeply, consoling, transforming or invigorating us in the process? In this paper, we argue that an answer to this question might emerge from a fecund framework in cognitive science known as predictive processing (a.k.a. active inference). We unpack how this approach connects sense-making and aesthetic experiences through the idea of an ‚Äėepistemic arc‚Äô, consisting of three parts (curiosity, epistemic action and aha experiences), which we cast as aspects of active inference. We then show how epistemic arcs are built and sustained by artworks to provide us with those satisfying experiences that we tend to call ‚Äėaesthetic‚Äô. Next, we defuse two key objections to this approach; namely, that it places undue emphasis on the cognitive component of our aesthetic encounters‚ÄĒat the expense of affective aspects‚ÄĒand on closure and uncertainty minimization (order)‚ÄĒat the expense of openness and lingering uncertainty (change). We show that the approach offers crucial resources to account for the open-ended, free and playful behaviour inherent in aesthetic experiences. The upshot is a promising but deflationary approach, both philosophically informed and psychologically sound, that opens new empirical avenues for understanding our aesthetic encounters. This article is part of the theme issue ‚ÄėArt, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives‚Äô

    ‚ÄėDesigning a wellbeing garden‚Äô a systematic review of design recommendations

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    Evidence demonstrates the benefits of gardens for promoting wellbeing. Some gardens are now being designed specifically to promote wellbeing; however, there are currently no evidence-based guidelines or recommendations available for designers to support such endeavours. The present study undertakes a systematic review of garden design literature to: (1) identify the defining characteristics of a garden that promotes wellbeing in non-clinical populations; and (2) summarize existing evaluations of garden designs into recommendations that can promote wellbeing. Online databases were used to identify papers published before October 2022, from which 17 publications were reviewed. This review was conducted following PRISMA and framework for scoping reviews. Results: The defining characteristics of wellbeing gardens centred around six design aspects: accessibility, wayfinding, fostering serenity, multisensory planting, spatial organization, and cultural artefacts. From these, recommendations were developed for garden designers to create wellbeing gardens

    NEGRITUDE, RACISMO E DIREITO NO BRASIL: ALGUNS APONTAMENTOS

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    Esse estudo tem como objeto a produ√ß√£o do conhecimento na √°rea do direito,especificamente na p√≥s gradua√ß√£o strictu sensu (mestrados e doutorados) denominadas‚Äúestado da arte‚ÄĚ no per√≠odo entre 1971 √° 2000 que tratem das tem√°ticas relativas √°negritudeeoracismo,etemcomoobjetivoapossibilitaraamplia√ß√£odoatualescopodaspesquisas j√° realizadas na √°rea do direito e suas poss√≠veis interfaces com os estudos nocampo das rela√ß√Ķes raciais. O referencial te√≥rico ampara-se na Teoria Cr√≠tica Racial dodireitoapartirdete√≥ricosDerrickBell,KimberlyKrewshaw,Patr√≠ciaJ.Willians,Patr√≠ciaHillColins,AngelaHarris,RichardDelgado,nosconceitosde‚Äúsociologiasdasaus√™ncias‚ÄĚ e ‚ÄúDireito dos Oprimidos‚ÄĚ do Jurista Boaventura dos Santos Souza, e nasteoriaspan-africanistasedanegritudenaperspectivadepensadorescomoEdwardBogartDu Bois, Marcus Garvey, L√©opold Senghor, Frantz Fanon, Angela Daves, Abdias doNascimento e L√©lia Gonz√°les, dentre outros. O referencial metodol√≥gico ampara nospressupostosepistemol√≥gico-metodol√≥gicodapesquisaqualitativaequantitativa(Creswell, 2007), em di√°logo com estudo sobre o estado da arte (Ferreira, 2002), apesquisa bibliogr√°fica (Gil, 2008; Lima e Mioto, 2007) e documental Cellard (2008),portanto,umapesquisamista na√°reado direito

    Determinants of the Profitability of Private Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

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    The aim of this study is to examine factors that determine profitability of private commercial banks in Ethiopia. Because the factors that determine bank profitability are broad, the nine variables that were identified from the literature and considered to have an impact on profitability are categorized into three major environmental aspects: macroeconomic variables, industry-specific variables, and bank-specific variables. To verify the independent variables that behave differently with risk adjusted return, risk neutral and risk adjusted performance metrics were also used. In terms of sample, the study looked at balanced panel data of 16 commercial banks from 2014 to 2019. In order to analyze the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. From the total nine independent variables, two of them namely, the bank capital strength and managerial efficiency simultaneously determine banks' profitability measured both in Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Risk Weighted Assets (RORWA). Whereas, three variables, namely, income diversification, banking industry development and inflation rate had significantly determined banks' profitability measured in ROA. While credit risk had significantly determined banks' profitability measured in RORWA. The remaining three variables, namely: bank size, bank growth and gross domestic product of country do not significantly determine banks profitability measured either on ROA or RORWA. The study suggests commercial banks to enhance capacity to control their operating costs and interest margin, diversify their sources of income, and strict follow-up on their capital adequacy positions. Keywords: Commercial Banks, Profitability DOI: 10.7176/RJFA/14-15-01 Publication date:August 31st 2023

    Development of thin surface virtual sensors for predictive maintenance

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    Mestrado de dupla diploma√ß√£o com a UTFPR, Universidade Tecnol√≥gica Federal do Paran√°In the field of manufacturing, metal stamping and plastic injection are some essential procedures, such that companies in this sector need to optimize these processes to gain a competitive advantage. In this sense, this work is part of the On-Surf project, which aims to develop surface modification processes, which promote advanced solutions within the transformation industry through surface engineering techniques. This work proposes the study of techniques based on virtual sensors, to monitor the temperature of a plastic injection mold in real time. The method makes use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software to model the injection system, mathematical software to adjust the process equations, and an algorithm developed in Python that calculates the value of the soft sensors from the input of one or multiple physical sensors. The work makes use of case studies of simple metallic surfaces to define the thermal behavior and associate it with a correlation factor. Then apply the techniques developed in the geometry of an injection mold. Through the use of soft sensors, it is possible to obtain more temperature points about the mold. Such information is extremely important for the predictive maintenance (PdM) of the machine, since it aims to facilitate the operational parameters decision making, reducing the probability of failures, both in the manufactured parts and in the physical sensors themselves, because the technique guarantees the monitoring of the values in real time.Na √°rea de manufatura, estampagem e inje√ß√£o de pl√°stico s√£o alguns procedimentos essenciais, de forma que as empresas do setor precisam otimizar esses processos para ganhar vantagem competitiva. Neste sentido, este trabalho √© parte do projeto On-Surf, que visa desenvolver solu√ß√Ķes avan√ßadas dentro da ind√ļstria de transforma√ß√£o atrav√©s de t√©cnicas de engenharia de superf√≠cies. Este trabalho prop√Ķe o desenvolvimento de sensores virtuais, para monitorar a tem- peratura de um molde de inje√ß√£o de pl√°stico em tempo real. O m√©todo utiliza um software de Engenharia Assistida por Computador (CAE) para modelar o sistema de inje√ß√£o, um software matem√°tico para ajustar as equa√ß√Ķes do processo e um algoritmo desenvolvido em Python que infere o valor dos sensores virtuais a partir da entrada de um ou v√°rios sensores f√≠sicos. O trabalho faz uso de estudos de caso de superf√≠cies met√°licas simples para definir o comportamento termico e associar a um fator de correla√ß√£o. A seguir aplicam-se essas t√©cnicas desenvolvidas na geometria de um molde de inje√ß√£o. Com o uso de sensores virtuais, ser√° poss√≠vel obter mais pontos de temperatura sobre o molde. Tais informa√ß√Ķes s√£o extremamente importantes para a manuten√ß√£o preditiva (PdM) da m√°quina, pois facilita a tomada de decis√£o dos par√Ęmetros operacionais, re- duzindo a probabilidade de falhas, tanto nas pe√ßas fabricadas quanto nos pr√≥prios sensores f√≠sicos, devido o monitoramento dos valores em tempo real

    Training Data Attribution for Diffusion Models

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    Diffusion models have become increasingly popular for synthesizing high-quality samples based on training datasets. However, given the oftentimes enormous sizes of the training datasets, it is difficult to assess how training data impact the samples produced by a trained diffusion model. The difficulty of relating diffusion model inputs and outputs poses significant challenges to model explainability and training data attribution. Here we propose a novel solution that reveals how training data influence the output of diffusion models through the use of ensembles. In our approach individual models in an encoded ensemble are trained on carefully engineered splits of the overall training data to permit the identification of influential training examples. The resulting model ensembles enable efficient ablation of training data influence, allowing us to assess the impact of training data on model outputs. We demonstrate the viability of these ensembles as generative models and the validity of our approach to assessing influence.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figure

    Changes in social characteristics of former council estates in the City of Canterbury since the introduction of the Right to Buy legislation

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    The aim of this thesis is to explore changes in social characteristics of former council estates in the City of Canterbury, since the introduction of the Right to Buy legislation. Research on social changes related to the Right to Buy has centred on a series of issues, however, a complete account of the evolution of social characteristics in former council housing areas seems not to have been explored in the literature. For this reason, the thesis intends to trace social changes that have taken place in former council estates, and to examine the changes against the issues discussed in the literature. Data has been collected from the 1981, 1991 and 2001 UK censuses, which delineate the social characteristics in former council estates before the changes (1981), during the changes (1991) and after the changes (2001). Fifty-one social indicators have been developed to represent the social characteristics being examined. Three data matrices, one for each census, have been constructed to study social change. Multivariate analysis has been applied to the data. First of all, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed to study the dimensionality of the data, which generated consistent results over the three data matrices. Secondly, Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) has been applied to study the similarities between areas in each data matrix. Property Fitting (ProFit) has been used to interpret the MDS configurations, and to help identify former council housing areas. Lastly and most importantly, Three-way Multidimensional Scaling has been adopted to study social change. The model used is INDSCAL by Carroll and Chang (1970), which generates a common space where the structure of social indicators remains constant. Areas have been represented into the common space by ProFit, in order to reveal the trend of social change over time. The results show that the changes in social characteristics of these former council housing areas are in line with the social changes discussed in the literature, i.e. the sale of council houses has resulted in the residualisation of the council housing sector, the growth of home ownership, social mix within former council estates, and gentrification-induced displacement

    A Comparison of Reinforcement Learning and Deep Trajectory Based Stochastic Control Agents for Stepwise Mean-Variance Hedging

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    We consider two data-driven approaches to hedging, Reinforcement Learning and Deep Trajectory-based Stochastic Optimal Control, under a stepwise mean-variance objective. We compare their performance for a European call option in the presence of transaction costs under discrete trading schedules. We do this for a setting where stock prices follow Black-Scholes-Merton dynamics and the "book-keeping" price for the option is given by the Black-Scholes-Merton model with the same parameters. This simulated data setting provides a "sanitized" lab environment with simple enough features where we can conduct a detailed study of strengths, features, issues, and limitations of these two approaches. However, the formulation is model free and could allow any other setting with available book-keeping prices. We consider this study as a first step to develop, test, and validate autonomous hedging agents, and we provide blueprints for such efforts that address various concerns and requirements.Comment: 37 page
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