38,186 research outputs found

    Individual Difference Predictors of Creative Ideation

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    Researchers have long been interested in individual difference variables as predictors of creativity. The focus of most studies has been on the later stages of creativity process through which creative ideas are transformed into tangible forms, but until recently a very limited empirical base existed to answer questions about why some individuals come up with creative ideas more often than others. The present study examined individual difference predictors of creative ideation among high ability undergraduate students and tested the role of well-being as a moderator in explaining these relationships. Three main findings are revealed. First, openness and extraversion were significantly associated with creative ideation, both positively. Second, creative ideation was also predicted by creative personal identity. Third, subjective well-being had both main and moderating effects on creative ideation. It moderated the relationship between creative personal identity and creative ideation

    On the Procrustean analogue of individual differences scaling (INDSCAL)

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    In this paper, individual differences scaling (INDSCAL) is revisited, considering INDSCAL as being embedded within a hierarchy of individual difference scaling models. We explore the members of this family, distinguishing (i) models, (ii) the role of identification and substantive constraints, (iii) criteria for fitting models and (iv) algorithms to optimise the criteria. Model formulations may be based either on data that are in the form of proximities or on configurational matrices. In its configurational version, individual difference scaling may be formulated as a form of generalized Procrustes analysis. Algorithms are introduced for fitting the new models. An application from sensory evaluation illustrates the performance of the methods and their solutions

    Relationship Between Humor Styles and Individual Difference Variables

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    Humor styles provide a better understanding of one’s personality and may vary based on individual difference variables. This study explores humor by looking at how different humor styles may correlate with other variables such as, loneliness, depression, the Big Five traits, self-esteem, age and sex. The following poster outlines the methodology used, as well as the proposed means of data analysis that will be conducted

    Individual Difference as a Factor in Ethical Decision-Making

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    Despite the dominance of modernistic ethics in counseling there has been a growing development of postmodern thought. There has been a growing understanding the limitations of ethical codes and purely rational thinking in ethical decision-making. Part of this new paradigm is an appreciation for the role of affect and context in the decision-making process. A post-modern approach to counseling ethics seems to be increasingly accepted among persons working in the social service field but little research has been attempted to evaluate the implications of such a change in training and practice. This study attempted to explore possible relationships between individual personality traits, habituated coping strategies, and emotional intensity when assessing ethical dilemmas or situations. Participants (N = 74) of this survey research were asked to complete an online survey to determine personality traits, positive and negative problem-solving strategies, level of emotional intensity, and other demographic information. Two regression analysis and a Pearson product-moment correlation procedure were used to analyze the collected data. No significant relationships were identified. The study concludes with an analysis of limitations and a discussion and important considerations for future research

    Individual difference correlates of continuing versus ceasing musical participation

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    While researchers have begun to examine how social and emotional investment in music is related to psychological well‐being, very little research has considered how best to promote life-long participation in music across the lifespan. One particular gap in the existing literature concerns how and why individuals continue to participate or, instead, cease their participation in musical activities. The current research adopted a social psychological approach to quantitatively examine the differences between 383 Australian residents who have ceased (44.40%) or currently participate in musical activity (55.60%). Responses to an online questionnaire indicated that current participation in music was associated positively with a preference for reflective and complex music and the WHO‐Bref’s psychological quality of life dimension; and that current participation in music was associated negatively with peer musical engagement when growing up. Moreover, gender, age, and measures of musical background and experience were not significantly associated with continuing to participate in musical activities. These findings have clear implications for educators’ attempts foster continued musical participation

    Motivation, reward and stress: individual difference and neural basis

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    Stress is ubiquitous in our daily life. A normal response to stress signifies that an individual is able to meet both external and internal demands flexibly, whereas exaggerated or blunted stress responses are an indication of increased vulnerability to psychosomatic diseases. Therefore, it is important to explore factors related to different stress responses and interactions between stress and emotional or cognitive processes. The present thesis focuses on two aspects: vulnerability and protective factors related to acute stress responses; and the possible neural mechanisms underlying altered reward-motivation processing during stress. Results in this thesis showed that personality traits, recent life events and cognitive capability influence the intensity of individual acute stress responses. In addition, acute stress and intrinsic motivation were found to play a role in reward processing. Acute stress increases reward anticipation and decreases reward consumption in the brain. The trait motivation has an impact on reward intertemporal decision making, mediated by the intrinsic prefrontal functional coupling. These results suggest that an interactive and integrative process including motivation-reward function, emotion processing and cognitive control may be the underlying mechanism for individual difference in stress vulnerability and resilience. Studies in this thesis may help to elucidate the fundamental psychological and neural mechanisms of stress vulnerability and resilience beyond various phenotypic factors related to different stress responses, and further guide efforts towards prevention, management and treatment of stress disorders