69 research outputs found

    Early diagnosis of malignant-transformed ovarian mature cystic teratoma: fat-suppressed MRI findings

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    The most common form of malignant transformation developing from a mature cystic teratoma is squamous cell carcinoma, representing 80% of malignant transformations, while adenocarcinoma accounts for approximately 5%. Because of this rarity, few reports exist of preoperative diagnosis of this tumor by magnetic resonance imaging, in particular with fat suppression techniques. Here, we report magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical features of a 79-year-old woman with mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma (measuring 5×6 cm), classified as surgical stage IA. Because of the poor prognosis of malignant transformation, when mature cystic teratomas are detected (even smaller than 5 cm tumor size) in postmenopausal women, serum tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen levels and fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging may be potential indicators of malignant transformation

    Real-time 3D Photoacoustic Visualization System with a Wide Field of View for Imaging Human Limbs [version 2; referees: 2 approved]

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    Background: A breast-specific photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system prototype equipped with a hemispherical detector array (HDA) has been reported as a promising system configuration for providing high morphological reproducibility for vascular structures in living bodies. Methods: To image the vasculature of human limbs, a newly designed PAI system prototype (PAI-05) with an HDA with a higher density sensor arrangement was developed. The basic device configuration mimicked that of a previously reported breast-specific PAI system. A new imaging table and a holding tray for imaging a subject's limb were adopted. Results: The device’s performance was verified using a phantom. Contrast of 8.5 was obtained at a depth of 2 cm, and the viewing angle reached up to 70 degrees, showing sufficient performance for limb imaging. An arbitrary wavelength was set, and a reasonable PA signal intensity dependent on the wavelength was obtained. To prove the concept of imaging human limbs, various parts of the subject were scanned. High-quality still images of a living human with a wider size than that previously reported were obtained by scanning within the horizontal plane and averaging the images. The maximum field of view (FOV) was 270 mm × 180 mm. Even in movie mode, one-shot 3D volumetric data were obtained in an FOV range of 20 mm in diameter, which is larger than values in previous reports. By continuously acquiring these images, we were able to produce motion pictures. Conclusion: We developed a PAI prototype system equipped with an HDA suitable for imaging limbs. As a result, the subject could be scanned over a wide range while in a more comfortable position, and high-quality still images and motion pictures could be obtained

    The whole blood transcriptional regulation landscape in 465 COVID-19 infected samples from Japan COVID-19 Task Force

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    「コロナ制圧タスクフォース」COVID-19患者由来の血液細胞における遺伝子発現の網羅的解析 --重症度に応じた遺伝子発現の変化には、ヒトゲノム配列の個人差が影響する--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-23.Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently-emerged infectious disease that has caused millions of deaths, where comprehensive understanding of disease mechanisms is still unestablished. In particular, studies of gene expression dynamics and regulation landscape in COVID-19 infected individuals are limited. Here, we report on a thorough analysis of whole blood RNA-seq data from 465 genotyped samples from the Japan COVID-19 Task Force, including 359 severe and 106 non-severe COVID-19 cases. We discover 1169 putative causal expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) including 34 possible colocalizations with biobank fine-mapping results of hematopoietic traits in a Japanese population, 1549 putative causal splice QTLs (sQTLs; e.g. two independent sQTLs at TOR1AIP1), as well as biologically interpretable trans-eQTL examples (e.g., REST and STING1), all fine-mapped at single variant resolution. We perform differential gene expression analysis to elucidate 198 genes with increased expression in severe COVID-19 cases and enriched for innate immune-related functions. Finally, we evaluate the limited but non-zero effect of COVID-19 phenotype on eQTL discovery, and highlight the presence of COVID-19 severity-interaction eQTLs (ieQTLs; e.g., CLEC4C and MYBL2). Our study provides a comprehensive catalog of whole blood regulatory variants in Japanese, as well as a reference for transcriptional landscapes in response to COVID-19 infection

    DOCK2 is involved in the host genetics and biology of severe COVID-19

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    「コロナ制圧タスクフォース」COVID-19疾患感受性遺伝子DOCK2の重症化機序を解明 --アジア最大のバイオレポジトリーでCOVID-19の治療標的を発見--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-10.Identifying the host genetic factors underlying severe COVID-19 is an emerging challenge. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2, 393 cases of COVID-19 in a cohort of Japanese individuals collected during the initial waves of the pandemic, with 3, 289 unaffected controls. We identified a variant on chromosome 5 at 5q35 (rs60200309-A), close to the dedicator of cytokinesis 2 gene (DOCK2), which was associated with severe COVID-19 in patients less than 65 years of age. This risk allele was prevalent in East Asian individuals but rare in Europeans, highlighting the value of genome-wide association studies in non-European populations. RNA-sequencing analysis of 473 bulk peripheral blood samples identified decreased expression of DOCK2 associated with the risk allele in these younger patients. DOCK2 expression was suppressed in patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis (n = 61 individuals) identified cell-type-specific downregulation of DOCK2 and a COVID-19-specific decreasing effect of the risk allele on DOCK2 expression in non-classical monocytes. Immunohistochemistry of lung specimens from patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia showed suppressed DOCK2 expression. Moreover, inhibition of DOCK2 function with CPYPP increased the severity of pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by weight loss, lung oedema, enhanced viral loads, impaired macrophage recruitment and dysregulated type I interferon responses. We conclude that DOCK2 has an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19, and could be further explored as a potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∼99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∼1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    Name Matching v.s. Structure Matching in Typing Systems for the Polyadic π-Calculus

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