61,010 research outputs found

    Instantons and the singlet-coupling in the chiral quark model

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    Chiral quark model with a broken-U(3) flavor symmetry can be interpreted as the effective theory of the instanton-dominated non-perturbative QCD. This naturally suggests the possibility of a negative singlet/octet coupling ratio, which has been found, in a previous publication, to be compatible with the phenomenological description of the nucleon spin-flavor structure.Comment: 9 page

    Light pseudo-Goldstone bosons without explicit symmetry breaking

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    A mechanism is discussed to obtain light scalar fields from a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry without explicitly breaking it. If there is a continuous manifold of classical vacua in orbit space, its tangent directions describe classically massless fields that may acquire mass from perturbations of the potential that do not break the symmetry. We consider the simplest possible example, involving a scalar field in the adjoint representation of SU(N). We study the scalar mass spectrum and its RG running at one-loop level including scalar and pseudoscalar Yukawa couplings to a massive Dirac fermion.Comment: minor typographical changes, 12 pages, 4 figure

    Recent advancement of turbulent flow measurement techniques

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    Advancements of the fluctuating density gradient cross beam laser Schlieren technique, the fluctuating line-reversal temperature measurement and the development of the two-dimensional drag-sensing probe to a three-dimensional drag-sensing probe are discussed. The three-dimensionality of the instantaneous momentum vector can shed some light on the nature of turbulence especially with swirling flow. All three measured fluctuating quantities (density, temperature, and momentum) can provide valuable information for theoreticians

    General Conditions for Lepton Flavour Violation at Tree- and 1-Loop Level

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    In this work, we compile the necessary and sufficient conditions a theory has to fulfill in order to ensure general lepton flavour conservation, in the spirit of the Glashow-Weinberg criteria for the absence of flavour-changing neutral currents. At tree-level, interactions involving electrically neutral and doubly charged bosons are investigated. We also investigate flavour changes at 1-loop level. In all cases we find that the essential theoretical requirements can be reduced to a few basic conditions on the particle content and the coupling matrices. For 1-loop diagrams, we also investigate how exactly a GIM-suppression can occur that will strongly reduce the rates of lepton flavour violating effects even if they are in principle present in a certain theory. In all chapters, we apply our criteria to several models which can in general induce lepton flavour violation, e.g. LR-symmetric models or the MSSM. In the end we give a summarizing table of the obtained results, thereby demonstrating the applicability of our criteria to a large class of models beyond the Standard Model.Comment: 31 pages, 2 figure

    Flavor and Spin Contents of the Nucleon in the Quark Model with Chiral Symmetry

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    A simple calculation in the framework of the chiral quark theory of Manohar and Georgi yields results that can account for many of the ''failures'' of the naive quark model: significant strange quark content in the nucleon as indicated by the value of σπN,\sigma _{\pi N}, the u\overline{u}-d\overline{d} asymmetry in the nucleon as measured by the deviation from Gottfried sum rule and by the Drell-Yan process, as well as the various quark contributions to the nucleon spin as measured by the deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scatterings.Comment: figure has been separated from tex file. No other changes. Preprint CMU-HEP94-3

    One-loop quantum corrections to cosmological scalar field potentials

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    We study the loop corrections to potentials of complex or coupled real scalar fields used in cosmology to account for dark energy, dark matter or dark fluid. We show that the SUGRA quintessence and dark matter scalar field potentials are stable against the quantum fluctuations, and we propose solutions to the instability of the potentials of coupled quintessence and dark fluid scalar fields. We also find that a coupling to fermions is very restricted, unless this coupling has a structure which already exists in the scalar field potential or which can be compensated by higher order corrections. Finally, we study the influence of the curvature and kinetic term corrections.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Structure of the electrospheres of bare strange stars

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    We consider a thin (102103\sim 10^2-10^3 fm) layer of electrons (the electrosphere) at the quark surface of a bare strange star, taking into account the surface effects at the boundary with the vacuum. The quark surface holds the electron layer by an extremely strong electric field, generated in the electrosphere to prevent the electrons from escaping to infinity by counterbalancing the degeneracy and thermal pressure. Because of the surface tension and depletion of ss quarks a very thin (a few fm) charged layer of quarks forms at the surface of the star. The formation of this layer modifies the structure of the electrosphere, by significantly changing the electric field and the density of the electrons, in comparison with the case when the surface effects are ignored. Some consequences of the modification of the electrosphere structure on the properties of strange stars are briefly discussed.Comment: 23 pages, 6 figures, to appear in Ap

    Local electronic structure near oxygen dopants in BSCCO-2212: a window on the high-Tc pair mechanism?

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    The cuprate material BSCCO-2212 is believed to be doped by a combination of cation switching and excess oxygen. The interstitial oxygen dopants are of particular interest because scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) experiments have shown that they are positively correlated with the local value of the superconducting gap, and calculations suggest that the fundamental attraction between electrons is modulated locally. In this work, we use density functional theory to try to ascertain which locations in the crystal are energetically most favorable for the O dopant atoms, and how the surrounding cage of atoms deforms. Our results provide support for the identification of STM resonances at -1eV with dopant interstitial O atoms, and show how the local electronic structure is modified nearby.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure
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