3,057 research outputs found

    Large Momenta Fluctuations Of Charm Quarks In The Quark-Gluon Plasma

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    We show that large fluctuations of D mesons kinetic energy (or momentum) distributions might be a signature of a phase transition to the quark gluon plasma (QGP). In particular, a jump in the variance of the momenta or kinetic energy, as a function of a control parameter (temperature or Fermi energy at finite baryon densities) might be a signature for a first order phase transition to the QGP. This behaviour is completely consistent with the order parameter defined for a system of interacting quarks at zero temperature and finite baryon densities which shows a jump in correspondance to a first order phase transition to the QGP. The J/ΨJ/\Psi shows exactly the same behavior of the order parameter and of the variance of the D mesons. We discuss implications for relativistic heavy ion collisions within the framework of a transport model and possible hints for experimental data.Comment: 4 pages 3 figure

    CP violation and mass hierarchy at medium baselines in the large theta(13) era

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    The large value of theta(13) recently measured by rector and accelerator experiments opens unprecedented opportunities for precision oscillation physics. In this paper, we reconsider the physics reach of medium baseline superbeams. For theta(13) ~ 9 degree we show that facilities at medium baselines -- i.e. L ~ O(1000 km) -- remain optimal for the study of CP violation in the leptonic sector, although their ultimate precision strongly depends on experimental systematics. This is demonstrated in particular for facilities of practical interest in Europe: a CERN to Gran Sasso and CERN to Phyasalmi nu_mu beam based on the present SPS and on new high power 50 GeV proton driver. Due to the large value of theta(13), spectral information can be employed at medium baselines to resolve the sign ambiguity and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. However, longer baselines, where matter effects dominate the nu_mu->nu_e transition, can achieve much stronger sensitivity to sign(Delta m^2) even at moderate exposures.Comment: 14 pages, 14 figures, version to appear in EPJ

    Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy)

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    Abstract. Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructures and loss of lives, also adversely affecting the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected, with sufficient accuracy, by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy) concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris flows. Thus, a method is proposed – based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event – to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate countries. Therefore, the obtained (heavy) rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization, and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, gives robustness to the obtained results

    Neutrino oscillation studies with laser-driven beam dump facilities

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    A new mechanism is suggested for efficient proton acceleration in the GeV energy range; applications to non-conventional high intensity proton drivers and, hence, to low-energy (10-200 MeV) neutrino sources are discussed. In particular we investigate possible uses to explore subdominant νˉμ→νˉe\bar{\nu}_\mu \to \bar{\nu}_e oscillations at the atmospheric scale and their CP conjugate. We emphasize the opportunity to develop these facilities in conjunction with projects for inertial confined nuclear fusion and neutron spallation sources.Comment: 30 pages, 9 figures, minor changes, version to appear in Nucl.Instrum.Meth.

    Nanotechnologies for cultural heritage: nanodiamond for conservation of papers and parchments

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    In this paper we report some tests regarding the feasibility of nanodiamond to act as a cleaning/consolidation agent of papers and parchments. We carried out a series of treatments aiming to develop innovative approaches for de-acidification, cleaning and consolidation. Dispersions of nanodiamond have been used as de-acidification agents of ancient papers showing the ability to sensibly reduce the acidity of the paper without using any alkaline base. Similar dispersions have been used for cleaning processes and nanodiamond demonstrated an outstanding capability to clean ancient papers and parchments avoiding the use of any solvent and surfactant. Moreover interesting results were obtained by using nanodiamond as consolidation agent. In particular, artificial aging by UV exposition was appreciably contrasted when samples were preliminarily submitted to a treatment by nanodiamond. This outcome was demonstrated in papers and parchments by Raman spectroscopy analyses that evidenced the property of nanodiamond to be an excellent UV-scavenge
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