208 research outputs found

    Enzymatic Synthesis of M1Gâ Deoxyribose

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    Adducts formed between electrophiles and nucleic acid bases are believed to play a key role in chemically induced mutations and cancer. M1Gâ dR is an endogenous exocyclic DNA adduct formed by the reaction of the dicarbonyl compound malondialdehyde with a dG residue in DNA. It is an intermediate in the synthesis of a class of modified oligodeoxyribonucleotides that are used to study the mutagenicity and repair of M1G. This unit presents methods for synthesizing M1Gâ dR by enzymatic coupling.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/143678/1/cpnc0102.pd

    Detection of non-melanoma skin cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging with fluorocoxib A.

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    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the US and its incidence is increasing. The current standard of care is visual inspection by physicians and/or dermatologists, followed by skin biopsy and pathologic confirmation. We have investigated the use of in vivo fluorescence imaging using fluorocoxib A as a molecular probe for early detection and assessment of skin tumors in mouse models of NMSC. Fluorocoxib A targets the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme that is preferentially expressed by inflamed and tumor tissue, and therefore has potential to be an effective broadly active molecular biomarker for cancer detection. We tested the sensitivity of fluorocoxib A in a BCC allograft SCID hairless mouse model using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system. Subcutaneous allografts comprised of 1000 BCC cells were detectable above background. These BCC allograft mice were imaged over time and a linear correlation (R(2) = 0.8) between tumor volume and fluorocoxib A signal levels was observed. We also tested fluorocoxib A in a genetically engineered spontaneous BCC mouse model (Ptch1(+/-) K14-Cre-ER2 p53(fl/fl)), where sequential imaging of the same animals over time demonstrated that early, microscopic lesions (100 ╬╝m size) developed into visible macroscopic tumor masses over 11 to 17 days. Overall, for macroscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 88% and the specificity was 100%. For microscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 56%. These results demonstrate the potential of fluorocoxib A as an in vivo imaging agent for early detection, margin delineation and guided biopsies of NMSCs

    Mechanism of Repair of Acrolein- and Malondialdehyde-Derived Exocyclic Guanine Adducts by the ╬▒-Ketoglutarate/Fe(II) Dioxygenase AlkB

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    The structurally related exocyclic guanine adducts ╬▒-hydroxypropano-dG (╬▒-OH-PdG), ╬│-hydroxypropano-dG (╬│-OH-PdG), and M[subscript 1]dG are formed when DNA is exposed to the reactive aldehydes acrolein and malondialdehyde (MDA). These lesions are believed to form the basis for the observed cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of acrolein and MDA. In an effort to understand the enzymatic pathways and chemical mechanisms that are involved in the repair of acrolein- and MDA-induced DNA damage, we investigated the ability of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB, an ╬▒-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) dependent dioxygenase, to process ╬▒-OH-PdG, ╬│-OH-PdG, and M[subscript 1]dG in both single- and double-stranded DNA contexts. By monitoring the repair reactions using quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry, it was established that AlkB can oxidatively dealkylate ╬│-OH-PdG most efficiently, followed by M[subscript 1]dG and ╬▒-OH-PdG. The AlkB repair mechanism involved multiple intermediates and complex, overlapping repair pathways. For example, the three exocyclic guanine adducts were shown to be in equilibrium with open-ring aldehydic forms, which were trapped using (pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) or NaBH[subscript 4]. AlkB repaired the trapped open-ring form of ╬│-OH-PdG but not the trapped open-ring of ╬▒-OH-PdG. Taken together, this study provides a detailed mechanism by which three-carbon bridge exocyclic guanine adducts can be processed by AlkB and suggests an important role for the AlkB family of dioxygenases in protecting against the deleterious biological consequences of acrolein and MDA.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant R01 CA080024)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant R01 CA26731)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Center Grant P30 ES02109)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Training Grant T32 ES007020
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