1,725 research outputs found

    Interaction between U/UO2 bilayers and hydrogen studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction

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    This paper reports experiments investigating the reaction of H2_{2} with uranium metal-oxide bilayers. The bilayers consist of \leq 100 nm of epitaxial α\alpha-U (grown on a Nb buffer deposited on sapphire) with a UO2_{2} overlayer of thicknesses of between 20 and 80 nm. The oxides were made either by depositing via reactive magnetron sputtering, or allowing the uranium metal to oxidise in air at room temperature. The bilayers were exposed to hydrogen, with sample temperatures between 80 and 200 C, and monitored via in-situ x-ray diffraction and complimentary experiments conducted using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). Small partial pressures of H2_{2} caused rapid consumption of the U metal and lead to changes in the intensity and position of the diffraction peaks from both the UO2_{2} overlayers and the U metal. There is an orientational dependence in the rate of U consumption. From changes in the lattice parameter we deduce that hydrogen enters both the oxide and metal layers, contracting the oxide and expanding the metal. The air-grown oxide overlayers appear to hinder the H2_{2}-reaction up to a threshold dose, but then on heating from 80 to 140 C the consumption is more rapid than for the as-deposited overlayers. STEM-EELS establishes that the U-hydride layer lies at the oxide-metal interface, and that the initial formation is at defects or grain boundaries, and involves the formation of amorphous and/or nanocrystalline UH3_{3}. This explains why no diffraction peaks from UH3_{3} are observed. {\textcopyright British Crown Owned Copyright 2017/AWE}Comment: Submitted for peer revie

    Bi2Te1.6S1.4 - a Topological Insulator in the Tetradymite Family

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    We describe the crystal growth, crystal structure, and basic electrical properties of Bi2Te1.6S1.4, which incorporates both S and Te in its Tetradymite quintuple layers in the motif -[Te0.8S0.2]-Bi-S-Bi-[Te0.8S0.2]-. This material differs from other Tetradymites studied as topological insulators due to the increased ionic character that arises from its significant S content. Bi2Te1.6S1.4 forms high quality crystals from the melt and is the S-rich limit of the ternary Bi-Te-S {\gamma}-Tetradymite phase at the melting point. The native material is n-type with a low resistivity; Sb substitution, with adjustment of the Te to S ratio, results in a crossover to p-type and resistive behavior at low temperatures. Angle resolved photoemission study shows that topological surface states are present, with the Dirac point more exposed than it is in Bi2Te3 and similar to that seen in Bi2Te2Se. Single crystal structure determination indicates that the S in the outer chalcogen layers is closer to the Bi than the Te, and therefore that the layers supporting the surface states are corrugated on the atomic scale.Comment: To be published in Physical Review B Rapid Communications 16 douuble spaced pages. 4 figures 1 tabl

    Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Are Productively Infected and Activated through TLR-7 Early after Arenavirus Infection.

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    The antiviral response is largely mediated by dendritic cells (DCs), including conventional (c) DCs that function as antigen-presenting cells, and plasmacytoid (p) DCs that produce type I interferons, making them an attractive target for viruses. We find that the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) and Lassa virus bind pDCs to a greater extent than cDCs. Consistently, LCMV Cl13 targets pDCs early after in vivo infection of its natural murine host and establishes a productive and robust replication cycle. pDCs coproduce type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines, with the former being induced in both infected and uninfected pDCs, demonstrating a dissociation from intrinsic virus replication. TLR7 globally mediates pDC responses, limits pDC viral load, and promotes rapid innate and adaptive immune cell activation. These early events likely help dictate the outcome of infections with arenaviruses and other DC-replicating viruses and shed light on potential therapeutic targets

    Copolymer Composition and Nanoparticle Configuration Enhance in vitro Drug Release Behavior of Poorly Water-soluble Progesterone for Oral Formulations

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    HYPOTHESIS: Developing oral formulations to enable effective release of poorly water-soluble drugs like progesterone is a major challenge in pharmaceutics. Coaxial electrospray can generate drug-loaded nanoparticles of strategic compositions and configurations to enhance physiological dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug progesterone. EXPERIMENTS: ix formulations comprising nanoparticles encapsulating progesterone in different poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrix configurations and compositions were fabricated and characterized in terms of morphology, molecular crystallinity, drug encapsulation efficiency and release behavior. FINDINGS: A protocol of fabrication conditions to achieve 100% drug encapsulation efficiency in nanoparticles was developed. Scanning electron microscopy shows smooth and spherical morphology of 472.1± 54.8 to 588.0± 92.1 nm in diameter. Multiphoton Airyscan super-resolution confocal microscopy revealed core-shell nanoparticle configuration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed presence of PLGA and progesterone in all formulations. Diffractometry indicated amorphous state of the encapsulated drug. UV-vis spectroscopy showed drug release increased with hydrophilic copolymer glycolide ratio while core-shell formulations with progesterone co-dissolved in PLGA core exhibited enhanced release over five hours at 79.9± 1.4% and 70.7± 3.5% for LA:GA 50:50 and 75:25 in comparison with pure progesterone without polymer matrix in the core at 67.0± 1.7% and 57.5± 2.8%, respectively. Computational modeling showed good agreement with the experimental drug release behavior in vitro

    Crystalline Silicate Emission in the Protostellar Binary Serpens--SVS20

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    We present spatially resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of the class I/flat-spectrum protostellar binary system SVS20 in the Serpens cloud core. The spectra were obtained with the mid-infrared instrument T-ReCS on Gemini-South. SVS20-South, the more luminous of the two sources, exhibits a mid-infrared emission spectrum peaking near 11.3 \micron, while SVS20-North exhibits a shallow amorphous silicate absorption spectrum with a peak optical depth of τ0.3\tau \sim 0.3. After removal of the the line-of-sight extinction by the molecular common envelope, the ``protostar-only'' spectra are found to be dominated by strong amorphous olivine emission peaking near 10 \micron. We also find evidence for emission from crystalline forsterite and enstatite associated with both SVS20-S and SVS20-N. The presence of crystalline silicate in such a young binary system indicates that the grain processing found in more evolved HAeBe and T Tauri pre-main sequence stars likely begins at a relatively young evolutionary stage, while mass accretion is still ongoing.Comment: Accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journa

    Importance of quantum tunneling in vacancy-hydrogen complexes in diamond

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    Our ab initio calculations of the hyperfine parameters for negatively charged vacancy-hydrogen and nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen complexes in diamond compare static defect models and models which account for the quantum tunneling behavior of hydrogen. The static models give rise to hyperfine splittings that are inconsistent with the experimental electron paramagnetic resonance data. In contrast, the hyperfine parameters for the quantum dynamical models are in agreement with the experimental observations. We show that the quantum motion of the proton is crucial to the prediction of symmetry and hyperfine constants for two simple defect centers in diamond. Static a priori methods fail for these systems

    Foregrounds for observations of the cosmological 21 cm line: II. Westerbork observations of the fields around 3C196 and the North Celestial Pole

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    In the coming years a new insight into galaxy formation and the thermal history of the Universe is expected to come from the detection of the highly redshifted cosmological 21 cm line. The cosmological 21 cm line signal is buried under Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds which are likely to be a few orders of magnitude brighter. Strategies and techniques for effective subtraction of these foreground sources require a detailed knowledge of their structure in both intensity and polarization on the relevant angular scales of 1-30 arcmin. We present results from observations conducted with the Westerbork telescope in the 140-160 MHz range with 2 arcmin resolution in two fields located at intermediate Galactic latitude, centred around the bright quasar 3C196 and the North Celestial Pole. They were observed with the purpose of characterizing the foreground properties in sky areas where actual observations of the cosmological 21 cm line could be carried out. The polarization data were analysed through the rotation measure synthesis technique. We have computed total intensity and polarization angular power spectra. Total intensity maps were carefully calibrated, reaching a high dynamic range, 150000:1 in the case of the 3C196 field. [abridged]Comment: 20 pages, 22 figures, accepted for publication in A&A. A version with full resolution figures is available at http://www.astro.rug.nl/~bernardi/NCP_3C196/bernardi.pd
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