1,124 research outputs found

    Wafering economies for industrialization from a wafer manufacturer's viewpoint

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    The key technical limitations which inhibit the lowering of value-added costs for state-of-the-art wafering techniques are assessed. From the best experimental results to date, a projection was made to identify those parts of each system which need to be developed in order to meet or improve upon the value-added cost reduction necessary for $0.70/Wp photovoltaics modules

    Do energy efficiency measures really reduce household energy consumption? A difference-in-difference analysis

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    This study investigates the impact of energy efficiency measures installed through the Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT) and the Community Energy Saving Programme (CESP) on domestic gas and total energy consumptions. The recently released National Energy Efficiency Data-Framework (NEED) database is used to examine the changes in domestic gas and total energy consumptions for the dwellings in the sample relative to the changes in gas and total energy consumptions for a comparable control group in the year after installation. The results obtained from this difference-in-difference analysis confirm that observed energy consumption decreases significantly in dwellings following upgrades such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation and a new efficient boiler. The single most effective energy efficiency measure when installed alone is found to be cavity wall insulation, reducing annual gas consumption by 10.5 % and annual total energy consumption by 8.0 % in the year following installation. Comparing bundles of different energy efficiency measures, we find that dwellings retrofitted with both cavity wall insulation and a new efficient boiler experience the largest reductions in annual gas and total energy consumptions of 13.3 and 13.5 %, respectively. This is followed by a mean annual reduction of 11.9 and 10.5 % in gas and total energy consumptions for dwellings with all three energy efficiency measures installed in the same year. Contrary to expectations, installing cavity wall insulation on its own is found to be more effective in reducing measured energy consumption than combining loft insulation and a new efficient boiler.This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12053-015-9418-

    The Operating Expense Puzzle of US Green Office Buildings

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    Cost savings from efficiency gains are at the core of the green building business case. Significantly lower energy bills are said to be a major factor in the green rent premium that has been observed in earlier studies. Our study tests this relationship by, inferring energy costs from operating expenses for a large dataset of US office buildings and relating them to the rental rates in a hedonic framework. We find that eco-certification is associated with a higher than anticipated total energy expenditure. While our dataset does not contain a direct measure of actual energy consumption, this result puts the cost-saving argument into question. By contrast, this study confirms earlier findings of a green rent premium but it appears that this premium might be an effect of factors unrelated to a tenant’s operating expenses

    Green luxury goods? The economics of eco-labels in the Japanese housing market

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    Using a unique transaction database of condominiums in the Tokyo metropolitan area and a hedonic analytical framework, we find that eco-labelled buildings command a small but significant premium on both the asking and transaction prices. This finding is consistent with results from other countries but in contrast to these studies, the present analysis also incorporates buyer characteristics which provide further information on the sources of demand for eco-labelled real estate. A separate estimation by subgroups reveals that the price premium is primarily driven by wealthier households that exhibit a higher willingness-to-pay for eco-labelled condominiums, both as a total amount and as a fraction of the total sales price. Less affluent households are also shown to pay higher prices for the eco label but the effect is less pronounced. The results indicate that capitalised utility bill savings are likely to account for a large proportion of the observed premium but the higher premium paid by affluent households suggests that more intangible benefits of living in a green building may also play a role.This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjie.2016.01.00