402 research outputs found

    Rise and Fall of Radio Halos in Simulated Merging Galaxy Clusters

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    We present the first high resolution MHD simulation of cosmic-ray electron reacceleration by turbulence in cluster mergers. We use an idealised model for cluster mergers, combined with a numerical model for the injection, cooling and reacceleration of cosmic-ray electrons, to investigate the evolution of cluster scale radio emission in these objects. In line with theoretical expectations, we for the first time, show in a simulation that reacceleration of CRe has the potential to reproduce key observables of radio halos. In particular, we show that clusters evolve being radio loud or radio quiet, depending on their evolutionary stage during the merger. We thus recover the observed transient nature of radio halos. In the simulation the diffuse emission traces the complex interplay between spatial distribution of turbulence injected by the halo infall and the spatial distribution of the seed electrons to reaccelerate. During the formation and evolution of the halo the synchrotron emission spectra show the observed variety: from power-laws with spectral index of 1 to 1.3 to curved and ultra-steep spectra with index >1.5> 1.5

    Dual-color STED microscopy on the Nanoscale

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    Simulations of the merging cluster of galaxies Cygnus A

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    The archetype FR-II galaxy Cygnus A lies in a moderately rich cluster about to undergo a major merger. We study the pre-merger Cygnus cluster environment using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations constrained by 2Ms of Chandra observations of the hot intracluster medium. The observations constrain the total gravitating mass and concentration parameter, and the simulations provide the quiescent and merger-enhanced temperature profiles of the pre- and post merger of the cluster excluding the central active galactic nucleus. We present the first detailed model of the sub cluster north west of Cygnus A, named CygNW. We find a lower baryon fraction and higher concentration parameter for CygA than expected from known scaling relations in the literature. The model suggests the Cygnus cluster hosts a pre-merger with a progenitor mass ratio of about 1.5:1 at the virial radius. We notice that the intra cluster medium is heated as a result of the merger, but we find no evidence for a (pre-)merger shock in the interstitial region between both cluster haloes. We attribute the merger-induced heating to compression of the cluster outskirts. The smooth model obtained from our simulations is subtracted from the observed cluster state and shows residual temperature structure that is neither hydrostatic nor merger-heated cluster gas. We speculate that this residual heating may result from previous AGN activity over the last ~100 Myr

    Measuring cosmic magnetic fields by rotation measure-galaxy cross-correlations in cosmological simulations

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    Using cosmological MHD simulations of the magnetic field in galaxy clusters and filaments we evaluate the possibility to infer the magnetic field strength in filaments by measuring cross-correlation functions between Faraday Rotation Measures (RM) and the galaxy density field. We also test the reliability of recent estimates considering the problem of data quality and Galactic foreground (GF) removal in current datasets. Besides the two self-consistent simulations of cosmological magnetic fields based on primordial seed fields and galactic outflows analyzed here, we also explore a larger range of models scaling up the resulting magnetic fields of one of the simulations. We find that, if an unnormalized estimator for the cross-correlation functions and a GF removal procedure is used, the detectability of the cosmological signal is only possible for future instruments (e.g. SKA and ASKAP). However, mapping of the observed RM signal to the underlying magnetization of the Universe (both in space and time) is an extremely challenging task which is limited by the ambiguities of our model parameters, as well as to the weak response of the RM signal in low density environments. Therefore, we conclude that current data cannot constrain the amplitude and distribution of magnetic fields within the large scale structure and a detailed theoretical understanding of the build up and distribution of magnetic fields within the Universe will be needed for the interpretation of future observations.Comment: 11 pages, 11 figures, comparation between RM data and simulations in fig. 8, submited to MNRAS

    Magnetic Field Evolution in Giant Radio Relics using the example of CIZA J2242.8+5301

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    Giant radio relics are the arc-shaped diffuse radio emission regions observed in the outskirts of some merging galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock-waves in the intra-cluster medium. Recent observations demonstrated that some prominent radio relics exhibit a steepening above 2 GHz in their radio spectrum. This challenges standard theoretical models because shock acceleration is expected to accelerate electrons to very high energies with a power-law distribution in momentum. In this work we attempt to reconcile these data with the shock-acceleration scenario. We propose that the spectral steepening may be caused by the highest energy electrons emitting preferentially in lower magnetic fields than the bulk of synchrotron bright electrons in relics. Here, we focus on a model with an increasing mag- netic field behind the shock front, which quickly saturates and then declines. We derive the time-evolution of cosmic-ray electron spectra in time variable magnetic fields and an expanding medium. We then apply the formalism on the large radio relic in the cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 (the Sausage relic). We show that under favourable circumstances of magnetic field amplification downstream, our model can explain the observed radio spectrum, the brightness profile and the spectral index profile of the relic. A possible interpretation for the required amplification of the magnetic field downstream is a dynamo acting behind the shock with an injection scale of magnetic turbulence of about 10 kpc. Our models require injection efficiencies of CRe - which are in tension with simple diffusive shock acceleration from the thermal pool. We show that this problem can likely be alleviated considering pre-existing CRe.Comment: 18 pages, 3 tables, 14 figure

    Is the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect responsible for the observed steepening in the spectrum of the Coma radio halo ?

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    The spectrum of the radio halo in the Coma cluster is measured over almost two decades in frequency. The current radio data show a steepening of the spectrum at higher frequencies, which has implications for models of the radio halo origin. There is an on-going debate on the possibility that the observed steepening is not intrinsic to the emitted radiation, but is instead caused by the SZ effect. Recently, the Planck satellite measured the SZ signal and its spatial distribution in the Coma cluster allowing to test this hypothesis. Using the Planck results, we calculated the modification of the radio halo spectrum by the SZ effect in three different ways. With the first two methods we measured the SZ-decrement within the aperture radii used for flux measurements of the halo at the different frequencies. First we adopted the global compilation of data from Thierbach et al. and a reference aperture radius consistent with those used by the various authors. Second we used the available brightness profiles of the halo at different frequencies to derive the spectrum within two fixed apertures, and derived the SZ-decrement using these apertures. As a third method we used the quasi-linear correlation between the y and the radio-halo brightness at 330 MHz discovered by Planck to derive the modification of the radio spectrum by the SZ-decrement in a way that is almost independent of the adopted aperture radius. We found that the spectral modification induced by the SZ-decrement is 4-5 times smaller than that necessary to explain the observed steepening. Consequently a break or cut-off in the spectrum of the emitting electrons is necessary to explain current data. We also show that, if a steepening is absent from the emitted spectrum, future deep observations at 5 GHz with single dishes are expected to measure a halo flux in a 40 arcmin radius that would be 7-8 times higher than currently seen.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted in Astronomy and Astrophysics (date of acceptance 19/08/2013

    Simulations of the Galaxy Cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 I: Thermal Model and Shock Properties

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    The giant radio relic in CIZA J2242.8+5301 is likely evidence of a Mpc sized shock in a massive merging galaxy cluster. However, the exact shock properties are still not clearly determined. In particular, the Mach number derived from the integrated radio spectrum exceeds the Mach number derived from the X-ray temperature jump by a factor of two. We present here a numerical study, aiming for a model that is consistent with the majority of observations of this galaxy cluster. We first show that in the northern shock upstream X-ray temperature and radio data are consistent with each other. We then derive progenitor masses for the system using standard density profiles, X-ray properties and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. We find a class of models that is roughly consistent with weak lensing data, radio data and some of the X-ray data. Assuming a cool-core versus non-cool-core merger, we find a fiducial model with a total mass of 1.6×1015M1.6 \times 10^{15}\,M_\odot, a mass ratio of 1.76 and a Mach number that is consistent with estimates from the radio spectrum. We are not able to match X-ray derived Mach numbers, because even low mass models over-predict the X-ray derived shock speeds. We argue that deep X-ray observations of CIZA J2242.8+5301 will be able to test our model and potentially reconcile X-ray and radio derived Mach numbers in relics.Comment: 19 pages, 19 figure

    Dual-Colour STED-microscopy on the Nanoscale

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    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy was the first concept for breaking Abbe's diffraction barrier in optical far-field microscopy verified in biological applications. However, the theoretically infinite resolution was limited due to photobleaching of the fluorescent species. In this thesis, dark-state relaxation (D-Rex) has been traced in a comprehensive study on one- and two-photon excitation to crucially reduce photobleaching in general thus leading to a major signal increase per excitation pulse. This facilitated a successful combination of this illumination strategy with STED-microscopy making a 10-fold increase of STED-power feasible. The expansion of STED-microscopy to D-Rex conditions at 250 kHz leads to a yet unattained focal plane resolution ~20 nm, equivalent to an approximate 12-fold multilateral increase of resolution below the diffraction limit. This macromolecular resolution was exemplified in a variety of biological samples, including proteins of cell-junction and focal adhesion, or a neurofilamental protein from the human brain. Finally, the extension to a Dual-colour STED-microscope was achieved to provide nanoscale precise colocalization ability of individual protein clusters in cell biology, thereby sustainably widening the application range of STED-microscopy. The method proved to resolve hitherto uncovered nanopatterns of vesicle proteins on endosomes, as well as localized different proteins in mammalian mitochondria
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